In the second half of the 20^th century, some works, e.g. [1--3], were published where a model of physical vacuum as a superfluid consisting of pairs of oppositely charged particles, the fermions, with zero total spin of a pair was proposed. Such a model explained the dielectric properties of the vacuum and the production of pairs of electrically charged unlike particles (for example, electron and positron) in the vacuum. The superfluid properties of physical vacuum explained as well the dissipation free motion of celestial bodies, such as the planets of the solar system. With the advances in condensed matter physics, the concept of vacuum was further enhanced: the phase transitions in vacuum, similar to the phase transitions in superfluid 3He-B [4, 5], came to be treated. In [6--8], the connection of particle physics and cosmology with condensed matter physics was established on the basis of properties of superfluid3He.
In the present work, see also [9, 10], the analogy between the properties of physical vacuum and those of superfluid 3He-B has been extended considerably. Mainly, this extension was done by taking into account the properties of vortices produced in superfluid 3He-B: the spin and electric polarization of the medium in vortices, inertial properties of and spin supercurrents between the vortices.
In Chapter 1, the properties of superfluid 3He-B taken as a basis of the model of physical vacuum advanced in this book are presented. From now on the physical vacuum with such properties will be referred to as the superfluid physical vacuum (the SPV).
In Chapter 2, on the basis of the SPV properties and the model of three-dimensional Euclidean space and independent time the equations describing the propagation of the vortex-wave process in the SPV are derived. These equations can be treated as the equations of propagation of spin-magnetic disturbances in the SPV (spins of the particles constituting the SPV are in question; hereafter the particles are referred to as "microparticles"). The electric phenomena are accompanying ones in the process. It is shown that the Maxwell equations that describe the propagation of electric and magnetic disturbances follow from the derived equations.
In Chapter 3, it is shown that the wave properties of quantum objects may be determined by a real physical process: production of vortices in the SPV by the objects.
According to the properties of the SPV, in the vortices there is precession of spins of microparticles that constitute the SPV, the frequency of the preces is assumed to be equal to the frequency of the Schrцdinger wave function for the quantum object. The validity of the above assumptions is based on that they account for a number of experimentally observe d phenomena: the emission of a photon when the atom changes its energy state, the interaction of photon with quantum objects, the phase correlation of photons, the Cherenkov--Vavilov effect, the "relativistic" increase in.
If light is considered to be a process in the SPV, then such a "luminiferous ether" gives rise to a number of problems to be solved. In particular, it is necessary to show that the experimentally proven kinematic equations of special relativity can be derived on the basis of the model of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time independent of the spatial coordinates. A solution to this problem is given in Chapter 4. It is shown that on the basis of the Ritz emission theory, the Galilean addition of velocities and with due account for the interaction between light and the measuring system or the transparent medium it is possible to derive the equations for the description of the transverse and longitudinal Doppler effects and the results of the Fizean experiment, which coincide to a high accuracy with similar equations derived in special relativity. It is shown that in the interaction of a photon with the measuring system the energy of circularly polarized photon is transformed according to the same principles as the energy of a moving body having intrinsic rotations with respect to the center of mass. On the basis of an analysis of experimental and theoretical data, a hypothesis is advanced that the speed of light undergoes equalization to the value of fundamental constant c in vacuum in those reference frames where material objects have wave properties.
According to the properties of the SPV, the electric polarization of the SPV takes place in the cores of vortices. Consequently, if the wave properties of quantum objects are due to creation of vortices by them in the SPV, then there is an electric dipole moment associated with matter waves of the quantum objects (the moment is referred to as the MW-EDM in this work). In Chapter 5, it is shown that by allowing for the MW-EDM one can explain a number of physical phenomena: the spin-orbit interaction; the interaction of electrons and nuclei resulting in parity non-conservation in the optical experiments; the interaction of two uncharged parallel metal plates in a vacuum (the Casimir effect); the changing of the size of a system of electrically charged bodies set in motion, the system being in equilibrium under the action of electrostatic forces only. It is shown in Chapter 6 that it is possible to develop a model of emergence of superconductivity in a molecular substance, taking into account the interaction of electrons of the substance due to electrons' MW-EDMs. Such a model allows one to derive an equation describing the experimentally obtained temperature dependence of the critical magnetic field for a superconductor. In the SPV model, the formation of Cooper pairs can be thought of as a result of spin-spin interaction of the microparticles (the character of the interaction depends on mutual orientation of their spins) in the merged core of the vortices produced by the Cooper pair electrons.
Since, under the SPV model, moving quantum objects produce vortices in the SPV, then a flow of electrically charged quantum objects will form a vortex line in the SPV. In Chapter 7 a relation between the velocity circulation around a vortex line in the SPV and electric current that forms the vortex line is derived. Experimental and theoretical evidence in favor of correlation of the SPV velocity and magnetic induction is given. Chapter 8 is devoted to description of interactions of objects by means of spin supercurrents arising between the spin structures produced by the objects in the SPV. It is shown that the effects of ultra low doses of biologically active substances or low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on biological objects is performed through spin supercurrents. Besides, it is shown that the SPV model can be useful for explaining the results of some experiments on the remote mental influence (psychokinesis) on electronic instruments or devices.
In Conclusion, the main physical phenomena which can be explained in the framework of the model of physical vacuum having the properties of superfluid 3He-B are outlined.
Has graduated from Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. She defended her PhD thesis in MEPHI on processing results of physical experiments. For 30 years she has been studying the properties of physical vacuum. The results are published in 2 books, both in Russian and in English, in more than 40 papers in Russian and foreign journals, and proceedings of a number of international conferences.