What all interactions have in common and how they can be put into a single equation
What role cosmic gravitational field plays in all terrestrial activities
Why the inert and gravitational masses of all earthly bodies coincide
How large our universe is and if it has any boundaries
Field Physics is the next generation physics. Modern science mostly describes the nature of events without looking at the reasons why they happen, i. e. it answers the question how rather than why.
For the first time, within the scope of Field Physics, we can look beyond the modern paradigm and understand the reasons why objects have the physical properties of mass and electrical charge; we can discover the internal mechanisms that are at work in field interactions as well as understand how the properties of physical objects can be influenced.
Field Physics is a book unlike any other before it and will probably give birth to a new genre of scientific literature. It is a profound study, rich in formulas, calculations and facts that reflect both the nature of physical events and our interpretation of the world at large. The book creates a synthesis between physics and philosophy.
Field Physics is a new paradigm and can't be summed up in just a few words. It inspires readers to take a journey of their own and, as a reward, experience the excitement of comprehending what has always been regarded as incomprehensible. The book is written for scientists and physicists, however, the simple language and lively style make it a compelling reading for everybody who is hungry for a new look at old things, be it a student, intern or anybody who has basic knowledge in physics.
When it is beginning to seem that all discoveries in physics have been made, a New Physics comes to take place of the old one.
What is the reality?
This is the basic question that physics will be forced to answer in the 21st century. For past ages, the scientists had been accumulating a great experimental material, with all phenomena and objects observed in nature or in the laboratory being always a priori perceived as really existing. For example, more than a hundred elementary particles registered under these or those conditions, sometimes utterly artificial, are categorically regarded as real particles. Consider also, say, billions of stars or millions of new galaxies, going far away up to infinity, which are indispensably treated again as really existing celestial bodies.
But what if the most part of all these just does not exist at all? For example, there does not exist such a particle as the muon which is an exact copy of the electron with the only difference that the muon's rest mass is 200 times more than the electron's. The muon's lifetime is about a small part of a second. Maybe the muon is nothing but the electron registered under extraordinary physical conditions? Specifically, when its mass becomes greater for some reasons, and if the muon's lifetime is the period during which the electron remains at this particular state. Giving rise to the illusion, we have seen a new particle.
Such a logic may be applied in fact to all heavy particles with short lifetimes. But it is they that form the overwhelming majority of elementary particles' spectrum! Until the modern system of views on the structure of the World is unable to throw light upon the nature of mass and matter's formation, we shall observe an indecently long list of elementary particles -- cornerstones of the Universe. This list is growing via each new experiment since any anew registered object, even with its lifetime at the upper limit of the instrument range, will be indispensably announced to be a real particle. Then we try to combine all these particles in order to find a kind of a system, meanwhile adapting for this purpose the current physics, even not suspecting that no system could exist at all as well as the greater part of the particles themselves!
What about the reality of all the cosmic objects included into modern catalogues? Maybe a remote quasar is nothing but the light of our native Sun? Just that has been reaching us not directly for 8 minutes but furrowing the cosmic depths for millions of years, repeatedly reflected, distorted and amplified -- which is seen now as an exotic source of light at the edge of the Universe! Now, if some whimsical optical effects like mirages can be observed even on Earth, what could we then expect to meet in outer space?
However, too great or too small scales are far from the only sources of illusions in our World. Consider, say, such a strange coincidence as the equality of inertial and gravitational masses under terrestrial conditions. In fact, these two quantities describe quite different properties of the bodies and, logically, cannot be equivalent in principle. The first one determines inertia of an object, whereas the second one -- its gravitational charge, an analogue of the electric charge. But the electric charge is not at all equivalent to the inertial mass! What is then the cause of the amazing equality of the inertial and gravitational masses observed even in precise experiments?
The irony here is that the procedure of any experimental set-up for checking the equivalence principle requires a maximally possible elimination of all external perturbations. Thus, the proof of coincidence of the two types of masses under such conditions becomes equivalent to the proof of the absence of the electric fields themselves in the bulk of a thick metal screen. The more screened is the measuring set, the more precisely the experiment proves the absence of the electric field! Something like that takes place in the experiments for checking the equivalence principle. It may be proved that it is the external influences that change the mass relationship, so that the stronger is the external field, the greater is its deviation from unity!
Another example of illusions is a principle which appeared at the dawn of the development of physics and has been retained up to now. We speak of course about the relativity principle, specifically, about rather an artificial selection of a family of inertial reference frames among all other ones, that always seemed to the scientists more than being strange. Indeed, the requirement for all physical equations to have the same form in all inertial frames has rather an esthetical than physical character. Moreover, development of electrodynamics which does not correspond to the classical relativity principle must have led to a revision of the previous notions.
In fact the revision has occurred. Yet, as a result, in modern notions almost all hypotheses of the period of rise and development of classical mechanics have been conserved: the relativity principle and the distinguished position of the inertial reference frames, the equivalence principle and the classical notion of mass etc. At the same time the ideas of space-time structure, matter and fields have been changed. It is not improbable that the modern physical conceptions may be considered as the ultimate truth, and the first working hypotheses prove to be the fundamental laws of nature.
However, another thing makes one be careful. According to the current scientific views, we live in the World where the time slows down and the distances contract simply in passing from one reference frame to another. This is a cost of the relativity principle. Our World is not three-dimensional but multidimensional. It is curved, probably contains holes and singularities. This is a pay for the equivalence principle. These physical axioms are probably worth of such a payment, but such a world is not ours!
Modern physics describes in fact some "Kingdom of curved mirrors". This has appeared spontaneously as a result of the "Big Bang" from a unique point with an infinite density -- the notions rather abstract than physical. In this "Kingdom" matter is born of energy. A semi-mystical notion which carries in itself a shade of some omnipotent force. Matter distorts space and time, which in fact are nothing but auxiliary notions created by man as a method for describing the phenomena, something like Russian or English languages. Space and time, in turn, govern the motion of matter.
Moreover, this "Kingdom of curved mirrors" becomes more picturesque if one equips it with quantum conceptions. Then even a long list of elementary particles becomes insufficient, and one is forced to invent so-called virtual particles. Those which most likely do not exist, but we had thought them up, and they start to play a part in physical processes. A trajectory of motion is absent, a position and velocity of particles cannot be determined exactly, all laws are of probabilistic type, and the causality is broken. Matter drifts like a wave, and the waves transform into matter. Particles are born of vacuum and then perish in the annihilation process. A lot of new charges appear together with new rules of their combination and conservation laws. An impression has been made that the world of modern physical conceptions is simply a morbid or perhaps malicious joke played by someone.
* * *
The beginning of the computer era is said to have changed strongly our life. We complain that people spend all days and nights long on computer games or rambling through the global net. As a result, they lose contact with reality. We observe just the special effects created on computers which might be easily taken in good faith. Indeed, almost everything may be modelled and demonstrated afterwards on a large screen or in a 3D holographic projection. One can even restore the whole leap-frog described above and believe in all that to be a reality.
So what is indeed the reality? It might be that the infinite starry sky with its billions of galaxies which we see, lifting up the head or tuning a powerful telescope, is only a beautiful special effect of the Creator? All these galaxies do not exist at all. Infinity is only an illusion. Indeed, for what would one create the infinite space if all the same nobody and never could fly so far away and "touch" all that? Even for light it takes more than a billion of years. Thus, a reasonable programmer would not extrapolate the model to remote distances but would simply use a sort of a background.
Then what about all our experiments? They are nothing but only a measurement of the parameters of special effects which make our World so beautiful and funny. But do our experiments really help to penetrate into the structure of this whole mechanism? It does not look like that. That is why our physics has a descriptional character. We know how the phenomenon occurs but are unaware of why it occurs in such a way. We make use of the notions of charge, mass, force, matter but know nothing about the nature which is behind these.
Richard Feynman at the beginning of his well-known lectures on physics has compared our World with a huge chessboard on which the gods play chess. It only remains for us to watch their game trying to understand its rules. It should be admitted however that up to now people have learned only to observe how the pieces move, and they are far from understanding why they move in this way. For example, we are able to collect a detailed description of how a pawn beats a queen shaking its spear (the gods are able to afford bright special effects in the chess game!), but nevertheless we have no idea of how the pawn has managed to do this. Why did the queen allows one to kill her? Probably, this was a global sacrifice, which made it possible to win the game? Rather frequently we wrongly conclude from such experiments that the pawn is more powerful than the queen.
Some experiments of this kind have been already mentioned. For example, having noticed an approximate proportionality of the inertial and gravitational masses in local terrestrial experiments, we make a fundamental physical principle of this detail and extend it to the whole Universe. Thereby, we modify our experiments so that no external factors could destroy the sacred proportionality, and we would become further convinced in its validity. So that we are led to believe in the curvature of our World, just in accord with the theory based on this principle.
In a similar way, we create the faith in a distinguished position of the inertial reference frames and spread it over all phenomena of nature, distorting our Universe still more. Then we begin to believe that there exists a wave-particle dualism, since in some experiments wave propagation create a semblance of particle motion, and vice versa. We also invent antimatter when the electron, for unclear reasons, deviates in a magnetic field from the usual direction, or invent a new particle when we register the same electron in the state with a greater mass. And so on.
It appears that, having raised experiment to the rank of the unique criteria of the truth, we became its hostages ourselves! An inveterate computer gambler looks inadequately when he starts to perceive literally all that he sees on the screen and to believe that this is real. Something like that takes place with physics, since any appearance of process occurrence, as a result of experiment, is perceived by the investigators quite literally. It occurs, especially in the case of implicit experiments, which admit an ambiguous interpretation, as well as when one extends the regularities of local terrestrial experiments to all the phenomena of nature in the form of fundamental physical principles.
In other words, the blind faith in the experiment in modern physics has led to quite odd physical notions and to the belief in absurd things. Thereby one forgets that appearances are often deceptive, and not only in everyday life, but in physical experiments as well.
How could one distinguish the reality from an illusion? Especially as our faithful servant -- experiment -- could no longer be our assistant? This is a crucial point in the development of physics and science as a whole. Admittedly, the descriptional period in the development of physics has come to its end, and the old philosophy and investigation techniques are no longer able to lead us to new results. That is why one can now hear more and more frequently that all of the basic discoveries have been already made, and one should not expect new outstanding discoveries.
During a few centuries of science development, a sufficient amount of experimental material has been accumulated, and its further collection becomes to resemble a senseless excess of precision. Just as Newton's views on the proportionality of the two types of mass, confirmed up to third decimal place, did not permit him to throw light on their nature, so the modern experiments up to the twelfth decimal place did not make the nature of mass more comprehensible. It is evident that an increase in the precision of these experiments up to the twentieth or thirtieth decimal places will not throw light on the nature of mass, in the absence, first of all, of ideological considerations to this problem. Even an unexpected observation of a deviation from the proportionality would most likely be taken for violation of the experiment precision.
The current physics has achieved much success in the domains of investigation where it is possible to observe clearly phenomena and to measure their parameters. However, modern physical methodology proved to be almost impotent with respect to investigation of the phenomena, in which the objects cannot be observed with a microscope or telescope, and other means of mental organization and information search are required. For example, we are dealing with nuclear physics and elementary particle physics, a study of collective phenomena in complex multiparticle systems and non-equilibrium processes, as well as the structure of invisible physical fields and the Universe as a whole.
In these issues, it is impossible to understand the essence of physical processes even at the descriptional level, if one continues to use the old methods of increasing the precision of experiments or modernizing the mathematical apparatus. The former leads unavoidably to an inadequate rise in price of the equipment, whereas the latter -- to a senseless growth of the complexity of calculations. Moreover, none of these means permits one to advance essentially towards another dimension of the development of physics: not in breadth to description of new phenomena, but deep into opening the internal mechanisms being behind the visible behaviour of the objects. It is motion in this direction that makes physics the most urgent and interesting science allowing one to learn how to distinguish an illusion from the reality, to find also adequate answers to questions about the structure of our World and, perhaps, even about the meaning of its and our existence.
* * *
In the process of development of the above outlook, field physics has been born. What is it?
To begin with, field physics is a physics with hypotheses and proofs, formulae and calculations. The physics destroying one of the most wide-spread stereotypes of present time and demonstrating that all fundamental laws of nature can be expressed via the four arithmetical operations, without resorting to unnecessary mathematical complexities. Like classical mechanics, field physics is formulated in terms of elementary mathematics accessible even for senior pupils, to say nothing of prepared people. Much attention has been given to a clear description of the mechanisms of physical processes and to revealing the essence of the notions being behind formulae for calculations. Thereby, field physics is a fundamental scientific theory, permitting one to make progress far beyond the frontier of the current physical conceptions and orientated primarily towards the needs of the leading specialists.
Using Einstein's terminology, field physics should be regarded as a unified field theory. It reveals a deep connection between electrodynamics, gravitation and mechanics, which is impossible to establish in the framework of the modern outlook. It throws light on the nature of masses and charges, interactions and forces. It naturally describes regularities of quantum mechanics revealing the origin of randomness and discrete states in continuous field medium. It allows comprehending the construction of matter -- nuclei and elementary particles. Perhaps, there is none of the noticeable issues in modern physics which would not be touched by field physics. On the other hand, more than a half of the results obtained in the framework of field physics are completely new and unknown in modern science.
However, field physics is not the physics in a general sense of the word. This is quite a new conception of the world, new philosophy, new principles, new priorities and new faith. This is not only with respect to physics as a science but to the human's life as well, to his perception of the world as a whole. This is a search for reality and a struggle with illusion. This is a break of old notions and a squall of new ideas. This is a nervous tension and intense emotions. One should be ready for all that. Probably somebody will makes up his mind that the good is in ignorance.
The most important feature of field physics is, perhaps, the following one. All contemporary science is constructed from small to large, from particular to general, from local to global. The traditional physics, say, began to develop from observations and descriptions of simplest phenomena. Afterwards there occurred an extension of the notions from the domain of classical phenomena to that of microworld and cosmic scales. From simple mechanical regularities to thermal, luminous, gravitational, electromagnetic, atomic, quantum and to other, more complicated phenomena. This is just a quintessence of the nature of a human being who, starting from his nearest environment, gradually extends the sphere of his interests and generalizes his notions.
Field physics has quite another vector of mentality. It has appeared from the outlook on our World as an integrated self-consistent mechanism. In terms of programming, it deals with not a user, mastering the system step by step, but with an elaborator who sets the structure and all properties of the System. Specifically, field physics considers the motion and properties of any individual object not as independent and isolated one, referred to some frame but as a part of the whole Universe, as a resultant of the influence of all other objects of the physical world. With this approach a prime importance is acquired by a minimal set of the input parameters of the System -- the types of interactions, particles and constants, as well as the conditions of self-consistent behaviour of the whole System and its boundary conditions.
Going back to Feynmann's chess, one can say that field physics is a transition from the observation of our World, from human's viewpoint, to the attempt to throw a glance at the World from the position of its Creator. How should one model our World that it acquired the known properties and the familiar form? Which conditions and interconnections appear to be necessary thereby? Just these are fundamental physical principles. Based on them, one may turn to a description of the local phenomena that are responsible for understanding the formation of the known parameters of objects and interactions -- masses, charges and forces. It becomes clear which of the regularities reflect indeed the fundamental principles, whereas the others are only local laws unfairly raised, in modern physics, to the range of global principles.
Field physics consider our World as a product of intelligent constructing. This is exactly the link that allows one to put in order the odd experimental material and to separate a seeming behaviour of the System from its real structure. In essence, the whole human science is based subconsciously on a peculiar belief that, as the basis for our World, a minimal set of reasonable principles is used which governs the whole gamut of the observed phenomena. The breakthrough of field physics is only due to realizing that, for these principles to be revealed, one should try to look at the System "from above", from the top of their founder logic. Preserving the belief in the presence of an intelligent origin in our World but not in the spontaneity of its appearance.
Field physics neither postulate an existence of the Creator, nor does it lean upon this. It has also no relations to any religious or philosophical trend. On the contrary, this book is organized mostly in accord with the traditional principle of development of scientific conceptions -- from the most familiar and intelligible things to new notions. The above vision of the picture of the World is gradually forming on the pages of this book, as parts of the physical "mosaic" are assembling in the united whole. Owing to the fact that every time one finds wonderfully the location of a hidden door leading to new discoveries. This is an exciting process by itself.
However, as often happens, it is possible to solve a complicated problem if only one knows the answer in advance. Perhaps, one could come to the correct solution and find an exit from the age-old paradoxes quite accidentally, but one has less chance for that than in case one knows beforehand where to look for. Of importance is to realize that all of the bright guesses forming the basis of field physics and presented in the book in the final form have been found only due to the above outlook. Most part of these guesses has remained inaccessible to the orthodox science up to now because it is almost impossible to arrive at them being guided by modern views on the World. That is why, starting to read this book, one should keep in mind the outlook on our World as on an integral logical system, a product of the intelligent modelling. One should try to imagine himself side by side with the Creator who starts to project our Universe!
Of course, one could act in a simpler way. To rewrite in a notebook all new formulae of field physics and to throw off the whole philosophy as an unnecessary scaffold. But this would guarantee that one would not be able to make any serious step forward. As a proof, the fact is served that modern science is not able to offer answers to most of the questions successfully solvable in the framework of field physics but generally incognizable at present. Formulae and laws are only a consequence of the conception forming the basis of field physics, the outlook that has allowed one to obtain all significant results.
* * *
Finally, the last peculiarity of this book is the matter that it is in fact a map of a new continent on the globe of science pointing to its location. We shall make the first voyage to this continent together, page after page and chapter after chapter, following this map. Trying not to be lost in the new lands we visit for the first time. At the end of the voyage we shall share of our impressions.
Perhaps, afterwards you would like to visit this continent independently to broaden your outlook on the structure of the World, to make your own contribution to its study, to give your name to a new town or to one of the peaks of this continent. It is due to the circle of topics, amount of new ideas and volume of the problems to be solved in field physics are sufficient to provide the scientists with the work at least for a century.
During our first voyage to field physics we shall not deviate far from the main route. Nor we shall go deep into the jungles of mathematical calculations and proofs. We will not be strongly fascinated by the development of some idea. Nor we shall study all the consequences of the laws and equations obtained, to say nothing of their employment to a wide circle of applied problems. At present, it is important to form the first idea of the new lands, to sketch the main traits of their geography and to indicate the places where various interesting things might hide. Later on, using these instructions, more than one generation of gifted investigators will be able to find itself and to broaden their comprehension of the structure of the World.
In this respect, this monograph is a textbook of how discoveries in physics could be made. Where and how one should look for hidden doors leading to unknown places. That is why the most important in this book is not even the formulae we shall obtain but a new world outlook and a manner of thinking, which would allow you to continue investigations independently. Allow you to alter your life revealing new values and reference points.
Now our ship is sailing. The discovery of a new scientific continent is beginning.