Savelyeva I.M., Poletayev A.V.The social organization of the knowledge of the past: analytical scheme
The authors attempts to systematize various approaches to the
analysis of the mechanism through which social views of the past
are being formed. The authors present an analytical scheme that
demonstrates interconnections between different disciplinary
discourses. The complex phenomenon of the shaping of the social
views of the past is described in the scheme which presents
a structure of the process of production, transmission and
appropriation of knowledge of the past. The authors distinguish
three levels that shape the views, and, accordingly, three
objects of analysis: the sources that shape the views of the
past, the mechanism of shaping it, and the results of the
process, i.e., its contents.
Blackwell Constance. Aristotle"s perplexity becomes Descartes" doubt
The author studies the Aristotelian traditions of the
Renaissance and the Early Modern philosophy. It is shown how
philosophers of the period used the idea of methodical doubt,
and its influence over the shaping of one of the key concepts of
Timofeyev D.V. The notions of "enlightenment" and "revolution" in the vocabulary of an educated Russian in the first quarter of the 19th c.
The article analyses the system of meanings and the interlinks
between the notions of "enlightenment" and "revolution" in the
Russian social and political vocabulary of the early 19th c.
The author analyses a number of memoranda, drafts, popular works
and media sources and defines positive and negative expectations
of the educated part of the Russian society in connection to the
possible consequences of the "enlightenment" and "revolution"
for the modernization of the Russian economy, resolving the
problem of serfdom and making the system of administration more
Schneider K.I. Early Russian liberals on individualism and property
The author analyses various connotations of the notions
"individualism" and "property" in the axiological vocabulary of
the early Russian liberals. His attention is focused on the
particular features of the early Russian liberalism and its main
theoretical postulates. The author advocates the use of the
concept of "social space" by P.Bourdieu as a method of studying
the phenomenon of the early Russian liberalism.
Bykova S.I. Soviet patriot as an "enemy of the people": the dilemma of individual and officially prescribed identity
The article deals with the problem of conflict/cooperation
between the prisoners and the NKVD investigators. The NKVD
officers aimed at the detection of the "contra-revolutionary,
subversive and espionage organizations"; they arrested innocent
people, and using various methods, obtained their "confessions"
of crimes the latter had not committed. One of the arguments was
that the confessions were in the interests of the Soviet state.
After the "confessions" had been forced of prisoners their
reflections on betrayal (of oneself, other people, or of an
idea) could lead them to suicide or to madness.
Svyatoslavsky A.V. On the forming of the image of I.V.Stalin in Russian collective memory, 1930--2000
The article analyses the dynamics of the image of I.V.Stalin in
collective memory. The image of Stalin, one of the prominent
historical figures of the 20th c. remains a crucial point in
the system of the cultural symbols of Russia, and various
political movements define themselves through their attitude to
it. At the same time the image itself is being transformed
Poutilova E.G. On the origin of the movement in memory and for rehabilitation of victims of political repression in the USSR
The article describes the history of the movement in memory and
for rehabilitation of victims of political repression in the
USSR. The author analyses the formative process using the
example of the Memorial society. The sources for this study
consist of the interviews with the members of the "Memorial" and
the unpublished documents from the Archive of regions of the
International society "Memorial" in Moscow.
Boroznyak A.I. "I want to know all the truth": German debates on the exhibition "the crimes of the Wehrmacht"
The article deals with the most important stage (Munich,
15 February -- 6 April 1997) of the exhibition on the crimes of the
Wehrmacht" that influenced the evolution of historical memory in
contemporary Germany. The author used materials from Bavarian
and German press, documents of the City Assembly of Munich, and
the comments in guest books.
Moukhin O.N. Peter the Great vs. Ivan the Terrible: the personality of ruler in the context of the Russian processes of modernization
The aim of the article is to find factors that correlate the
processes of modernization in the Early Modern Russia with
psycological and social identities of monarchs-reformers through
comparing the personalities of Ivan the Terrible and Peter I in
their social and cultural contexts. Comparative historical
analysis helps to explain the greater efficiency of the policies
of the first Russian emperor, and to find the roots of the
typical problems of Russian modernization that persist till our days.
Khryakov A.V. Hermann Heimpel: atypical biography of a German historian
The article is focused on the life and work of a prominent
German historian of the Middle Ages, Hermann Heimpel
(1901--1988). He had welcomed the Nazis in power with enthusiasm
and had worked on the history of Medieval Reich, which he saw as
a prototype of the "Third Reich". After the World War II
Heimpel, alone among other historians, admitted the errors of
the German way and of his own behaviour.
Nagornaya O.S. "The colonel began to sob soundlessly; all officers had eyes full of tears... ": communicating emotions behind the barbed wire
The article reconstructs the emotions of Russians prisoners of
war in German camps during the World War I.The object of study
is both the range of emotions and the ways of their
communication in the camp and in Russian/Soviet public debate
and memoirs. The focus is on the breaks of emotional gender
canon and intentional dramatization of emotion according to
Kostyrev V.G. Regular payments in the contemporary views on military service in the 14th century
The article deals with the changes in the attitudes to the paid
military service in Western Europe of the 14th c.,
particularly in England and France. At that time the
organization of military service changed dramatically. Regular
payments became an accepted practice and made possible the
existence of regular armies and the royal control over it. It is
shown how the changes influenced the contemporaries" attitudes
towards military service.
Chepel A.I. "I have not had a license and wanted to visit my children": separation of family members in the Swedish-Russian border region after the treaty of Stolbovo
The author studies archival documents in order to analyze the
interactions between members of the families divided by
Swedish-Russian border as it had been agreed on in the Treaty of
Stolbovo. It is concluded that the family ties of the border
region population together with ambiguous policy of the local
authorities resulted in the instability of the border region.
Kiryukhina E.M. Everyday life in the middle ages in the "Cadfael chronicles" by Ellis Peters
The object if study is the description of everyday life in the
Middle Ages presented in the series of historical novels the
"Cadfael Chronicles" by an English writer Ellis Peters: i.e.,
the descriptions of interiors, costumes (cut and colour),
accessories, jewelry, food, and pastimes in the 12th c. -- England. The author"s attention is focused on the relationship
between a product and its maker and his creativity (manuscript book).
Samarina N.G. Monuments of science and technology: culturology and source studies
The article is focused on the two approaches to the
interpretation of the science and technology monuments that are
generated by culturology and source studies. Technology is
viewed in ontological and axiological contexts, as a factor that
transforms social and cultural values and changes the phenomenon
of humanity and the human role in material world. The current
museum practice demonstrates poor knowledge of the source
studies and the lack of the skill of scientific classification.
Safronova A.M. Books on world history in the Ekaterinburg library of V.Tatischev
The article deals with foreign books on world history printed in
the 16--18th cc. that formed the Ekaterinburg library of
V.N.Tatischev. Among them are the works on the history of
ancient peoples and states, on world history, the history of
Western Europe and some of its countries.
Ananyev V.G. The semiotics of the construction of St Isaac"s cathedral
The article presents the first attempt to analyze the stages of
the construction of St Isaac"s Cathedral in St Petersburg and
its consecration using the semiotical approach. Universalist
religious ideas of Alexander I who desired to clear religious
discourse from national aspects was replaced by the more
"historical" religious discourse of the reign of Nicholas I and
the use of the image of Alexander Nevsky in the Cathedral"s
programme, The consecration ceremony was intended to stress the
link with Russia"s past through incorporating into it a solemn
procession to the monument to Peter I.Thus each reign included
the Cathedral in its own scenario of power and reshaped its
Batser M.I. Two English revolutions as a historiographical problem
The author corrects the views on the events that took place in
the 17th-c. England which dominated the Soviet
historiography. The article is focused on the radical movement
of Levellers, the policies of Cromwell in 1649--1658 are
assessed negatively, unlike the restoration of the Stuarts in
1660. The author argues that the Glorious Revolution -- a great
event in world history -- should be re-assessed.
Aelius Donatus. Ars Grammatica [Ars Maior]: (on letter; on parts of the speech; on nouns)
This a publication of a fragment on letters, on the parts of the speech and nouns from the grammatical work by Aelius Donatus (4th c. A.D.) (Ars grammatica [Ars maior]), translated from Latin, with commentary. The translation is based on the edition by L.Holtz (1981), but the earlier edition by H.Keil (1864) has also been taken into consideration. Keywords: letter, parts of speech, noun, case, Romans, Greeks.