LIBROS EN LENGUAS EUROPEAS
Dannij sbornik yavlyaetsya rezul'tatom semiletnikh issledovanij, provodimikh na dosuge; v nёm soderzhitsya bolee 5000 poslovits na chetirёkh yazikakh: 1276 na russkom, 1707 na ukrainskom, 1250 na anglijskom i 1210 na frantsuzskom.
The present volume constitutes a collection of more that 5000 proverbs in four languages: 1250 English proverbs, 1210 French, 1276 Russian and 1707 Ukrainian proverbs. I have been compiling proverbs for seven years during in-tervals of business.
Dannij sbornik yavlyaetsya rezul'tatom semiletnikh issledovanij, provodimikh na dosuge; v nёm soderzhitsya bolee 5000 poslovits na chetirёkh yazikakh: 1276 na russkom, 1707 na ukrainskom, 1250 na anglijskom i 1210 na frantsuzskom. Ideya sozdaniya dannogo sbornika frazeologicheskikh ekvivalentov zarodilas' u menya davno. Predlagaemij chitatelyu sbornik imeet prakticheskuyu napravlennost', v nёm sobrani te poslovitsi i pogovorki, kotorie obladayut ekvivalentami v sootvetstvuyuschikh trёkh yazikakh. Vi sprosite, pochemu ya vibrala imenno eti yaziki? Vo-pervikh, ya kubanskaya kazachka po proiskhozhdeniyu i virosla v mnogonatsional'noj srede, a imenno v russkoj i ukrainskoj, s detskikh let vpitivaya krasotu, bogatstvo i melodichnost' etikh dvukh yazikov cherez skazki i narodnie pesni. Vo-vtorikh, ya filolog po obrazovaniyu i izuchala anglijskij i fratsuzskij yaziki na fakul'tete romano-germanskoj filologii v Krasnodare. V-tret'ikh, mne predstavilas' zamechatel'naya vozmozhnost' zhit' i rabotat' v anglo- i frankogovoryaschikh stranakh.
Dannoe issledovanie provodilos' na osnove sopostavitel'nogo analiza. IzNza mnozhestva sinonimov dlya kazhdoj iz sobrannikh poslovits ikh klassifitsikatsiya ni v alfavitnom poryadke, ni po tematicheskim gruppam okazalos' nevozmozhnoj. V rezul'tate chego vse poslovitsi bili klassifitsirovani po sinonimicheskim gruppam s ekvivalentami na trёkh drugikh yazikakh; obratite vnimanie, chto eto ne doslovnij perevod kazhdoj iz poslovits na drugoj yazik, a nabor sinonimov na kazhdom iz chetirёkh yazikov. Poslovitsi, identichno sformulirovannie na dvukh, trёkh ili chetirёkh yazikakh, videleni zhirnim shriftom. Kazhdaya sinonimicheskaya gruppa imeet svoj poryadkovij nomer, chto oblegchaet poisk v baze dannikh. Alfavitnij ukazatel' prilagaetsya.
Uverena, chto dannij sbornik zainteresuet ne tol'ko professionalov, a imenno perevodchikov, filologov i prepodavatelej, no takzhe uchenikov i studentov, kotorie, k moemu velikomu sozhaleniyu, ne ispol'zuyut v svoej obikhodnoj rechi poslovitsi. A ved' oni soderzhat v sebe mudrost' nashikh predkov, dayut vozmozhnost' tochno i lakonichno peredat' chuvstva, obogaschaya nashu rech'. Poslovitsi igrayut vazhnuyu rol' i pri izuchenii inostrannogo yazika, tak kak proiskhodit soprikosnovenie s kul'turoj naroda, fol'klorom, v tom chisle poslovitsami i pogovorkami.
V zaklyuchenie khotelos' bi otmetit', chto dannij sbornik prigoditsya i mnogim delovim lyudyam, sdelaet ikh rech' yarche, bogache i budet sposobstvovat' povisheniyu effektivnosti obscheniya, delaya besedu na inostrannom yazike bolee zhivoj i svobodnoj. Oni smogut blesnut' poznaniyami inostrannogo yazika, ispol'zuya poslovitsi iz prilozheniya v kontse dannogo sbornika.
Proverbs have long history; its function is to teach and advise people. They guide people to adopt a correct attitude towards life and to take a proper way to get along well with others. Proverb is defined by Mieder as "a short sentence of wisdom" and by Wander "like butterflies, some are caught, some fly away". They are born, live, die and preserve the poetical and vital treasury for future generations. "Among the Ibo the art of conversation is regarded very highly, and proverbs are the palm-oil with which words are eaten". (Things Fall Apart, Chinua Achebe, Nigeria.)
Due to their simple sentence structure, rhythm and rhyme, proverbs are fairly easy to memorize and easily retrievable from memory. In fact, many typical British proverbs were handed over from French in medieval times as equivalents, and often as direct translations. At the same time, there are a few that have the same implied meaning but are expressed in a totally different way in each language. Just as many French proverbs derive from Latin, very many British proverbs derive from French ones due to much contact. It is important to note that Bible is essential for British and American cultures and influences every aspect of its life. Consequently, many sayings and sentences in Bible have been popularly accepted. With the development of society, a language cannot avoid contacting with other languages. English language absorbed a large number of proverbs from other languages including Greek, Latin, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Hebrew, Arabic, and other languages. Finally, many English proverbs involve events or characters of English literature, Shakespeare's works are probably the most colorful literature origin of proverbs.
Proverbs deal with various aspects of life and are said to constitute an encyclopedia of popular wisdom. A great way to improve your understanding of a foreign language, culture, people and history is to study proverbs. Often proverbs run in pairs: every proverb seems to be contradicted by another proverb with an opposed message, such as "many hands make light work" and "too many cooks spoil the broth".
The present volume constitutes a collection of more that 5000 proverbs in four languages: 1250 English proverbs, 1210 French, 1276 Russian and 1707 Ukrainian proverbs. I have been compiling proverbs for seven years during intervals of business. Why these four particular languages? First, I am originally Cossack and was brought up in a multicultural environment, i.e. Russian and Ukrainian. Second, I am a linguist and studied English and French at the Kuban University in Krasnodar. Moreover, I have been working in French and English-speaking countries for years. Finally, I master all the four languages that made easier my research.
Due to multitude of synonyms for each proverb, it turned out impossible to classify the proverbs either in alphabetic order or in thematic groups. Therefore, the proverbs were classified in synonymic groups with their equivalents in the other three languages. Take note that it is not a mere translation of proverbs but a set of synonyms in each of the four languages (see the below example). The proverbs that are worded the same way in several languages are highlighted. Each synonymic group is numbered that facilitates search in the database. Moreover, an alphabetical index is enclosed.
I am sure that this volume will be of use not only for linguists but also for students who unfortunately are rapidly loosing their father's memory of and taste for proverbs and do not make good use of proverbs in their everyday speech. In addition, the enclosed supplement of proverbs will be of great use for businessmen and businesswoman. Using proverbs gives spice to conversation, moreover the person quoting clever sayings knows that he gains in the estimation of his fellows for showing himself as well read. Without proverbs our language would be tasteless like rainwater.
Chus' Galina Nikolaevna
Rodilas' v Semipalatinske (Kazakhstan). Zakonchila fakul'tet romano-germanskoj filologii v KGU v Krasnodare i Mezhdunarodnij atlanticheskij universitet na Gavayakh po spetsial'nosti «okhrana okruzhayuschej sredi». Zanimalas' pedagogicheskoj i perevodcheskoj deyatel'nost'yu. S 1996 g. rabotaet v oblasti razvitiya v Organizatsii ob'edenennikh natsij v razvivayuschikhsya stranakh.
Born in Kazakhstan. Graduated with the Master's degree in philology from the Kuban State University. Got the Master of Science in environment from the Atlantic International University in Hawaii. Worked as a teacher and translator. From 1995 she has been working on development issues with the United Nations in developing countries.