The Microscopic Theory of Heterogeneous Structures presents the modern methods of theoretical physics for solving problems in metal science. The method of modulated concentration waves is frequently applied as it allows us to consider, for the first time from a unified viewpoint, me theory of spatially heterogeneous structures with arbitrary heterogeneity scales (macro, meso, and micro). This base is used to investigate the structures and physical properties of materials whilst accounting for microdefects, to consider thermodynamically highly disperse states (which possess abnormally enhanced properties), and to analyze the formation and decay kinetics of inhomogeneous structures. This approach can be used to represent both microscopic detail caused by short-range components of interatomic interactions and the morphological structure associated with long-range fields. For the first time a quantum statistical technique is used to assess ordering by considering atoms as Fermi perturbations distributed at lattice vertices. Both inlet (Fermi) and collective (quasi-Bose) perturbation models are used. The book was published in Russian in 1987 and can be used by professional scientists, lecturers, students, and postgraduates.