This book presents key ideas of quantum mechanics. The paradoxes of the quantum world are explained with examples of dispute between Einstein and Bohr. A collection of simple drawings illustrates the key concepts: wave/particle dualism, non-locality, and quantum jumps.
The foundations of quantum physics were the source of a new hypothesis about the origin of Life. The backbone of this hypothesis is that a nonlocal link at the quantum level exits between all living organisms. This liaison has been developed many eons ago, since the origin of life in the world’s oceans.
Recently Roger Penrose's book "The Emperor's New Mind:
Concerning Computers, Mind, and the Laws of Physics" was published.
In the first chapter titled "Can a computer possess intelligence?" the
author discussed the problems of origin of human intelligence and he
wrote the following:
"According to the quantum mechanics, any two electrons must be identical;
the same is true about any couple of protons or couple of elementary particles of
one type. This is more than a statement about their indistinguishability -- this is a
stonger statement. If we would manage to exchange an electron in human brain
and an electron in a brick, the state of the system would remain absolutely the
same, as before -- not only the same, but indistinguishable! The same is true about
protons and other elementary particles, as well as atoms, molecules, etc. If the
material of the human body is being replaced by corresponding particles belonging
to the bricks of his house, nothing will change at all. The key difference of a human
from his house is what kind of structure is created from components of his body,
but not the individual properties of these components."
We see from this citation that Penrose makes no difference
between an electron in human brain and an electron of brick. It seems
strange, because Penrose has fundamental knowledge of quantum
mechanics. At least he understands that an indivisible electron (or another
quantum particle) may exist in different places of space and therefore, it
can go through two slots.
But it is absolutely clear that the electron, that has passed through
two slots is different physically from the electron had not passes them yet.
Although the charge and mass of rest, indeed, are the same for two
electrons, their quantum state can be different. The quantum state of an
electron (or other particles) can be very complex and contain huge
information. For example, one can imagine a device where an electron
passes through million of orifices and splits into million of wave packets.
If all orifices are open, the state of the electron after these orifices will
correspond to one million of "one". If some orifices are closed, some
"ones" are replaced with "zeros". This means that a quantum state of a
single electron can contain a big amount of information.
We may say that the "body" (mass and charge) of all electrons is
the same, but "souls" (quantum states) are different.
Since living creatures contain very large information, it is natural
assume that this information is stored not in their own structure, but in a
very complex quantum state of elementary particles that constitute the
living organisms. If the quantum state of a single elementary particle can
be complex and carry a lot of information, this is truer about the quantum
state of the whole living organism (trillions of particles).
There is a great difference between a living body and unanimated
matter, although they consist of the same class of elementary particles -- protons, neutrons and electrons. To explain this difference, I assume that
the elementary particles making a living organism exist in a very complex
quantum state. For example, an elementary particle arriving to the
organism would split into many wave packets which are in a constant
motion inside the organism. We assume that a part of elementary particles
of a living organism is not localized in organs, but moves throughout this
organism in the form of wave packets. I would say that a living organism
is like a very complex interferometer, and the phenomenon of life (from
physical point of view) is a hypercomplex interference processes inside
this organism. This was my initial intension of the account for the 7th
But when I started to write a draft, the logic of reasoning, against
my will, brought me to another idea. Indeed, the life from physical view
is an interference phenomenon and a living organism can be compared
with an interferometer. But this is less important thing. The most
important thing is that the ensemble of all living organisms creates a
gigantic united interferometer. Elementary particles split in this hyper-
interferometer into wave packets and exist simultaneously in a plurality
of living beings. Later these wave packets, existing in living creatures,
interact with each other and this creates a very complex and perfect
interference pattern known as Life.
After I comprehended this, I decided to rewrite the 7th chapter. I
removed the paragraphs about interference inside a living organism (just
to keep focus on the main things) and focused on the idea of nonlocal
connection between all living beings, that existed since the times of
conception of Life. My initial concept was that nonlocal connection
between a creature and entire Biomass can be breached by reduction, and
cannot be restored. This was the spirit of the chapter seven.
Now I think that I was partially wrong. It seems more reasonable
that the Biomass can restore the broken nonlocal link between living
organisms. The Biomass, covering almost entire surface of the planet, is
an indivisible whole. But the unanimated nature can also be an indivisible
whole. The unanimated world of Earth can form a network of nonlocal
links. At least, the nonlocal link that unites all waters of Earth in a whole
can be sustained due to circulation of water in nature. The atmosphere of
Earth, due to winds, can be sustained in a united quantum state.
When the Biomass interacts with the environment, it picks up the
atoms that are not localized in a place, but rather "smeared" over a
considerable territory. These atoms after acquisition by the Biomass
becomes "live" atoms, that present in many creatures in the form of wave
packet. Figuratively speaking, the Biomass breaths in the life into living
From this point of view, the main reason of aging and death of a
living organism is not internal process of the collapse of wave packets
that transforms a live atom into "dead" one. The main reason is that the
Biomass (by some reasons) fails to supply new portions of live atoms.
All living creatures eat food, drink water, and intake air. Any of
these processes can fill the living organism with live atoms. Surely, if the
Biomass has not barred this process.
Crystallization of this idea moved me to rewriting of the chapter 7,
but later I decided to keep as it is and to add these comments. Because the
goal of the 7th chapter was not to give a full and comprehensive account
of the new idea (this is too early for that), but to give only a general