Contents


Introduction 
Part I. Elastic hA Scattering 
1  General Features of Interaction with Nuclei 
 1.1.  Nuclear structure, protons, neutrons, meson currents 
 1.2.  Elastic eA scattering and nuclear form factors 
 1.3.  Hofst\"adter experiments and the geometry of the nucleus 
 1.4.  Unitarity condition, optical model and hA cross sections 
 1.5.  Relativistic kinematics and Lobachevski geometry 
2  Elastic and Quasielastic hA Scattering at Intermediate Energies 
 2.1.  Eikonal approximation and Glauber theory 
 2.2.  Elastic scattering on a deuteron target 
 2.3.  Elastic scatterings on heavy nuclei 
 2.4.  Quasielastic scattering 
 2.5.  Experimental proton and neutron distributions in the nuclei 
 2.6.  Parameters of NN amplitude for bound target nucleon 
3  HadronNucleon Collisions at High Energies 
 3.1.  Elastic hN scattering via Reggepole exchange 
 3.2.  The change of the spacetime picture of interactions at high energies 
 3.3.  Diffractive dissociation in hN collisions 
 3.4.  Inclusive reactions 
 3.5.  The AGK cutting rules for Reggeon diagrams 
4  Elastic HadronNucleus Scattering at High Energies 
 4.1.  High energy elastic hadrondeuteron scattering 
 4.2.  Deuteron disintegration in AGK cutting rules 
 4.3.  Inelastic screening for heavy nuclei. The twochannel approach 
 4.4.  Different hA cross sections in the twochannel approach 
 4.5.  Total cross sections of unstable particles 
 4.6.  Multichannel approach for high energy hA collisions 
 4.7.  Color transparency 
5  Elastic and Quasielastic Scattering in the Additive Quark Model 
 5.1.  Total hN cross sections 
 5.2.  Elastic hN scattering 
 5.3.  Vector meson photoproduction 
 5.4.  Diffraction dissociation of hadrons 
 5.5.  Shadowing corrections for hadronnucleus collisions 
 5.6.  Coherent production from nuclei 
Part II. Multiple Hadron Production on Nuclear Targets 
6  Production of Particles in hA Collisions at Low Energy and in the Kinematics Forbidden for hN Interactions 
 6.1.  Secondary production on nucleon target near threshold 
 6.2.  Pion production on nuclear targets at low energies 
 6.3.  Subthreshold production 
 6.4.  Cumulative effect 
7  Production of Secondaries in the Intranuclear Cascade Model and the Arising Problems 
 7.1.  General features of the model 
 7.2.  Multiplicities of secondaries produced on nuclear targets 
 7.3.  The comparison of nu A and nu N inelastic collisions 
 7.4.  Formation time 
 7.5.  Secondary production in QCD 
 7.6.  Hadron resonance production 
 7.7.  Weak absorption of lowenergy antiprotons produced on nuclear target 
 7.8.  The possibility to account some interference contributions in the cascade model 
8  Parton Model and Fan Reggeon Diagram Approach 
 8.1.  Spacetime picture of secondary production 
 8.2.  Inelastic hadronnucleus interactions in the Parton Model 
 8.3.  Reggeon Fan Diagrams Approach for description the inclusive spectra of secondaries 
9  High Energy HadronNucleus Collisions in Additive Quark Model 
 9.1.  Spectator mechanism and its consequences for secondary production on nuclear targets 
 9.2.  The Adependence of the inclusive spectra in the fragmentation region 
 9.3.  Comparison with the data 
 9.4.  Hadron content of secondaries in the fragmentation region 
10  Multiple Scattering Theory for Secondary Production in hA Collisions 
 10.1.  Noncoherent elastic scattering on nuclear target 
 10.2.  The multiparticle absorptive parts 
 10.3.  Selfshadowing effects 
 10.4.  Energy division in multiple interaction 
 10.5.  The problem of planar/nonplanar diagrams 
11  Phenomenological Predictions of the Multiple Scattering Theory 
 11.1.  Multiplicities and spectra of secondaries 
 11.2.  Cross sections of double scattering in inelastic hadrondeuteron collisions 
 11.3.  Multinucleon interactions of incident hadron on nuclear target 
12  Particle Production in the String Model 
 12.1.  The motion of a relativistic string 
 12.2.  The decay kinematics of the string 
 12.3.  Stochastic iterative fragmentation of the string 
 12.4.  The Schwinger vacuum decay mechanism 
 12.5.  Dipole formalism 
13  QuarkGluon String Model for Multiparticle Production 
 13.1.  General formalism 
 13.2.  Quark and diquark distributions in hadrons in QGSM 
 13.3.  Quark and diquark fragmentation functions 
 13.4.  Comparison of QGSM predictions with experimental data for meson production from nucleon target 
 13.5.  Secondary baryon/antibaryon production 
 13.6.  Baryon diffusion to large distances in rapidity space 
14  Spectra of Secondaries on Nuclear Targets 
 14.1.  Inclusive spectra on nuclear target in QGSM 
 14.2.  Comparison with experimental data 
 14.3.  Heavy flavour hadron production 
 14.4.  Parton distributions in the bound nucleons 
 14.5.  Adependence of hard processes on nuclear targets with accounting of nuclear shadowing 
 14.6.  Predictions for superhigh energies and violation of Feynman scaling 
 14.7.  Passage of cosmic rays through the atmosphere in the QGSM 
 14.8.  Increase of transverse momenta of secondaries and its contribution to Feynman scaling violation 
15  Cross Sections and Probabilities in Heavy Ion Collisions 
 15.1.  Amplitude of elastic nucleusnucleus scattering 
 15.2.  Monte Carlo simulation of nucleusnucleus scattering 
 15.3.  Integrated cross sections 
 15.4.  Distributions on the number of interacting nucleons 
 15.5.  Multiplicity distributions and dispersions 
16  High Density Matter 
 16.1.  Possibility of new physics in heavy ion collisions 
 16.2.  Thermalization and Collective Flow 
 16.3.  Parton saturation and Color Glass Condensate 
 16.4.  Jet quenching 
 16.5.  Percolation of color sources 
 16.6.  Charmonium supression 
Bibliography 
Introduction


The subject of relativistic nuclear physics lies between classical nuclear
physics and high energy physics of elementary particles. There exists
a natural boundary between the classical and relativistic nuclear physics. The
first one considers mainly the nuclear structure and the nuclear excitations.
In the case of relativistic nuclear physics we often deal with quasifree
nucleons, and sometimes it is possible to neglect their Fermimotion. Moreover,
in many cases the internal (quarkgluon) structure of the nucleons should be
taken into account. Of course, there are problems where the classical and
relativistic nuclear physics overlap. In the present book we will consider
mainly the problems of relativistic nuclear physics.
We will consider the energy boundary between classical and relativistic nuclear
physics as the energy where the production of at least one pion in the
considered hA reaction is possible.
However, the energy region of relativistic nuclear physics can also be divided
into two parts. The region of "intermediate energies" is that of energies where
the average multiplicity of the produced pings is rather small. The most
important fact is that in secondary production processes the momenta
transferred to the nucleon target are large compared to the Fermi motion
momenta of nucleons. The region of "high energies" is related to "Pomeron
physics", where the multiplicities of secondaries are large, and the
diffractive production of secondaries with very small momentum transferred to
the target nucleon is possible. In the high energy region a number of new
effects appear; they will be considered later.
Relativistic nuclear physics is important in many respects in both energy
regions. First of all, we have an additional variable  the atomic weight of
the target that gives new possibilities for testing the models of multiparticle
production. The size of a nuclear target is rather large in comparison with QCD
length scale Lambda^{1}_{QCD}. Thus, we have here an interaction with an
extended target, and we can change its effective length by changing the atomic
weight of the target. There are also ideas about a possible new state of the
matter, the quarkgluon plasma, colour glass condensate, or another type of
high density parton matter, which may be produced in heavy ion collisions. High
energy physics experimental data are obtained very often on nuclear targets; in
these cases we have to understand the possible nuclear corrections. More
examples, both fundamental and applied, can be provided.
There exist many original papers and reviews on relativistic nuclear physics
which will be quoted in the course of our discussions. However, most of these
papers and reviews discuss only some specific problems, and some of the
considered approaches are in serious disagreement with other ones. One of the
most informative book which discusses many phenomenological problems together
with experimental data is [1]. This book is, however, thirty years old,
so many recent questions are just not considered there. Another problem is that
the main part of [1] is devoted to the cascade model and its application
to the description of the data. But there exist nowadays a lot of data which
are in serious contradiction with this model. These problems will be considered
in detail mainly in Part 2 of our book.
The very useful book [2] considers mainly heavy ion collisions. Among
other books and reviews for introducing and developing the discussed problems
we can suggest [3][7]. Many experimental data (mainly
concerning multiple secondary production on nuclear targets) can be found in
[8].
The main idea of the present book is to give a more or less complete analysis
of the situation in relativistic nuclear physics without the discussion of very
special or purely mathematical details. So this book should be considered as an
introduction to the problem. However we cannot suggest it as a textbook for
students. We would like to recommend it, say, for postgraduate students and
young scientists who want to have some theoretical overview on the problem. So,
in many cases the results are presented without the formal detailed derivation.
More details can be found in the recommended References.
Most of the discussions are based on the socalled dispersion approach which,
following from the unitarity condition, allows one to consider both the
processes of elastic scattering and of multiparticle production from the same
point of .
We present rather simple picture which can explain a lot of experimental data
concerning mainly the high energy strong interactions with nuclear targets.
This picture is based on the Multiple Scattering Theory with including the
inelastic screening effects, when it is necessary. Of course, the numerical
predictions needs, as a rule, some additional models and assumptions, however
very often all these assumptions and model parameters can be found from the
interactions with nucleons.
It is necessary to note that the understanding of secondary production from
nuclear targets has not only pure scientific importance. There exist several
practical projects which need the calculations of such processes. Among them we
can say about the neutrino exploration of the Earth for purposes of geological
research [9], muon catalysis for energy production by nuclear fusion
[10] and creation of high energy (14 MeV) and high intensity neutron
beams (mainly for material sciences) [11].
We assume that the reader is provided with the knowledge on quantum mechanics
and the basic topics of relativistic quantum theory and elementary particle
physics. So we give just a very short introduction to these problems.
Let us outline the structure of this book. After discussing the general
features of the interactions with nuclei at high energies, we consider in more
detail the most important informations concerning elastic hadronnucleus
(hA) scatterings at intermediate and high energies; in the latter case some
new contributions (e.g. inelastic screening, coherent production, etc.)
appear.
One of the central topics of our discussions is multiparticle production in
such processes. We consider different approaches, and show that some of them
are in contradiction with each other and with the description of the
experimental data. We demonstrate that the most logical way is to constrain the
multiple production reactions, in close connection with elastic processes, with
the help of unitarity conditions by using the technique of eigenstates and/or
of dispersion integrals. Again, we consider here both the regions of
intermediate and high energies.
In the last two Section of the book we discuss very shortly some
wellestablished results for high energy heavy ion collisions coming from the
Multiple Scattering Theory and the effects which appear in the high density
matter. High energy heavy ion physics is developed now very fast, so, for our
opinion, a manuscript on this subject will be not complete at the moment of its
printing.
Hadronnucleus collisions were a fashionable subject mainly during the
seventies and eighties. So the reader should not be surprised that many
references and experimental data are rather old. Another reason for this is
that we wanted to recall, at least partly, the history of relativistic nuclear
physics. The main results in hadronnucleus collisions are now more or less
understandable, so it is time to give a general view on the problem. Recently
the most interesting results in relativistic nuclear physics come from the
heavy ion collisions, due to the experimental programs at the CERNSPS, at the
BNLRHIC and at the forthcoming CERNLHC.
Unfortunately, mainly due to the limited volume of the book we cannot discuss
many fields and ideas of the relativistic nuclear physics, for example such as
interplay between soft and hard particle production, hydrodynamical, kinetic
and transport equation approaches, .
Acknowledgments


We are indebted to N.Armesto and J.Nyiri for reading the manuscript and many
comments.
We are grateful to V.V.Anisovich, Ya. I.Azimov, K.G.Boreskov,
M.A.Braun, V.M.Braun, A.Capella, L.G.Dakhno, J.Dias de Deus,
V.I.Isakov, A.B.Kaidalov, O.V.Kancheli, M.N.Kobrynsky,
B.Z.Kopeliovich, E.M.Levin, L.N.Lipatov, N.N.Nikolaev,
M.G.Ryskin and A.A.Vorobyov.
We would like to clime that the background of our book is based on the ideas of
V.N.Gribov, V.M.Shekhter and K.A.TerMartirosyan.
Authors


Carlos Pajares received his PhD from Universidad Complutense de Madrid
in 1971. He was researcher postdoc at Orsay and Seattle and professor at
Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona. He found the Particle Physics Department
of the Universidad de Santiago de Compostela where was Rector
in the period 19841990. He has published many research papers on
multiparticle production, high density matter and heavy ion collisions.
Yuliy Mechislavovich Shabelski received his PhD in 1973 from
ITEP, Moscow. He first worked as a researcher and then from 1985
as a senior scientist at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute
(PNPI) of the USSR Academy of Science. He has published the book "Quark
Model and High Energy Collisions" (World Sci., 1985 and 2004) and
over 160 reseach papers on the theory and the phenomenology
of multiparticle production processes, nuclear target phenomena, heavy
quark production, heavy ion physics and some applied physics problems.