This book is devoted to the processes of elastic and inelastic hadron-nucleus interactions at moderate ( 1 GeV) and high energies. After short discussion of the main properties of atomic nuclei we present the standard Glauber theory for elastic and quasielastic hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering. Then the inelastic shadow corrections which appear at high energies are reviewed with several methods for their calculation.
We consider the different absorptive parts of the elastic scattering amplitude by using the unitarity condition to study the inelastic hadron-nucleus collisions. Several phenomenological models, including Intranuclear Cascade Model, Additive Quark Model, and Quark-Gluon String Model are discussed in connection with the description of a large range of experimental data on multiparticle production from nuclear targets. The space-time picture of high energy interaction is given in detail.
Finally, the main features of high density parton matter, which is probably produced in high energy heavy ion collisions, are considered. Topics as thermalization, collective flow, parton saturation, colour glass condensate, energy loss, jet quenching, quarkonium suppression, and percolation of colour sources are introduced.
The subject of relativistic nuclear physics lies between classical nuclear
physics and high energy physics of elementary particles. There exists
a natural boundary between the classical and relativistic nuclear physics. The
first one considers mainly the nuclear structure and the nuclear excitations.
In the case of relativistic nuclear physics we often deal with quasi-free
nucleons, and sometimes it is possible to neglect their Fermi-motion. Moreover,
in many cases the internal (quark-gluon) structure of the nucleons should be
taken into account. Of course, there are problems where the classical and
relativistic nuclear physics overlap. In the present book we will consider
mainly the problems of relativistic nuclear physics.
We will consider the energy boundary between classical and relativistic nuclear
physics as the energy where the production of at least one pion in the
considered hA reaction is possible.
However, the energy region of relativistic nuclear physics can also be divided
into two parts. The region of "intermediate energies" is that of energies where
the average multiplicity of the produced pings is rather small. The most
important fact is that in secondary production processes the momenta
transferred to the nucleon target are large compared to the Fermi motion
momenta of nucleons. The region of "high energies" is related to "Pomeron
physics", where the multiplicities of secondaries are large, and the
diffractive production of secondaries with very small momentum transferred to
the target nucleon is possible. In the high energy region a number of new
effects appear; they will be considered later.
Relativistic nuclear physics is important in many respects in both energy
regions. First of all, we have an additional variable -- the atomic weight of
the target that gives new possibilities for testing the models of multiparticle
production. The size of a nuclear target is rather large in comparison with QCD
length scale Lambda-1QCD. Thus, we have here an interaction with an
extended target, and we can change its effective length by changing the atomic
weight of the target. There are also ideas about a possible new state of the
matter, the quark-gluon plasma, colour glass condensate, or another type of
high density parton matter, which may be produced in heavy ion collisions. High
energy physics experimental data are obtained very often on nuclear targets; in
these cases we have to understand the possible nuclear corrections. More
examples, both fundamental and applied, can be provided.
There exist many original papers and reviews on relativistic nuclear physics
which will be quoted in the course of our discussions. However, most of these
papers and reviews discuss only some specific problems, and some of the
considered approaches are in serious disagreement with other ones. One of the
most informative book which discusses many phenomenological problems together
with experimental data is . This book is, however, thirty years old,
so many recent questions are just not considered there. Another problem is that
the main part of  is devoted to the cascade model and its application
to the description of the data. But there exist nowadays a lot of data which
are in serious contradiction with this model. These problems will be considered
in detail mainly in Part 2 of our book.
The very useful book  considers mainly heavy ion collisions. Among
other books and reviews for introducing and developing the discussed problems
we can suggest --. Many experimental data (mainly
concerning multiple secondary production on nuclear targets) can be found in
The main idea of the present book is to give a more or less complete analysis
of the situation in relativistic nuclear physics without the discussion of very
special or purely mathematical details. So this book should be considered as an
introduction to the problem. However we cannot suggest it as a textbook for
students. We would like to recommend it, say, for post-graduate students and
young scientists who want to have some theoretical overview on the problem. So,
in many cases the results are presented without the formal detailed derivation.
More details can be found in the recommended References.
Most of the discussions are based on the so-called dispersion approach which,
following from the unitarity condition, allows one to consider both the
processes of elastic scattering and of multiparticle production from the same
point of .
We present rather simple picture which can explain a lot of experimental data
concerning mainly the high energy strong interactions with nuclear targets.
This picture is based on the Multiple Scattering Theory with including the
inelastic screening effects, when it is necessary. Of course, the numerical
predictions needs, as a rule, some additional models and assumptions, however
very often all these assumptions and model parameters can be found from the
interactions with nucleons.
It is necessary to note that the understanding of secondary production from
nuclear targets has not only pure scientific importance. There exist several
practical projects which need the calculations of such processes. Among them we
can say about the neutrino exploration of the Earth for purposes of geological
research , muon catalysis for energy production by nuclear fusion
 and creation of high energy (14 MeV) and high intensity neutron
beams (mainly for material sciences) .
We assume that the reader is provided with the knowledge on quantum mechanics
and the basic topics of relativistic quantum theory and elementary particle
physics. So we give just a very short introduction to these problems.
Let us outline the structure of this book. After discussing the general
features of the interactions with nuclei at high energies, we consider in more
detail the most important informations concerning elastic hadron-nucleus
(hA) scatterings at intermediate and high energies; in the latter case some
new contributions (e.g. inelastic screening, coherent production, etc.)
One of the central topics of our discussions is multiparticle production in
such processes. We consider different approaches, and show that some of them
are in contradiction with each other and with the description of the
experimental data. We demonstrate that the most logical way is to constrain the
multiple production reactions, in close connection with elastic processes, with
the help of unitarity conditions by using the technique of eigenstates and/or
of dispersion integrals. Again, we consider here both the regions of
intermediate and high energies.
In the last two Section of the book we discuss very shortly some
well-established results for high energy heavy ion collisions coming from the
Multiple Scattering Theory and the effects which appear in the high density
matter. High energy heavy ion physics is developed now very fast, so, for our
opinion, a manuscript on this subject will be not complete at the moment of its
Hadron-nucleus collisions were a fashionable subject mainly during the
seventies and eighties. So the reader should not be surprised that many
references and experimental data are rather old. Another reason for this is
that we wanted to recall, at least partly, the history of relativistic nuclear
physics. The main results in hadron-nucleus collisions are now more or less
understandable, so it is time to give a general view on the problem. Recently
the most interesting results in relativistic nuclear physics come from the
heavy ion collisions, due to the experimental programs at the CERN-SPS, at the
BNL-RHIC and at the forthcoming CERN-LHC.
Unfortunately, mainly due to the limited volume of the book we cannot discuss
many fields and ideas of the relativistic nuclear physics, for example such as
interplay between soft and hard particle production, hydrodynamical, kinetic
and transport equation approaches, .
We are indebted to N.Armesto and J.Nyiri for reading the manuscript and many
We are grateful to V.V.Anisovich, Ya. I.Azimov, K.G.Boreskov,
M.A.Braun, V.M.Braun, A.Capella, L.G.Dakhno, J.Dias de Deus,
V.I.Isakov, A.B.Kaidalov, O.V.Kancheli, M.N.Kobrynsky,
B.Z.Kopeliovich, E.M.Levin, L.N.Lipatov, N.N.Nikolaev,
M.G.Ryskin and A.A.Vorobyov.
We would like to clime that the background of our book is based on the ideas of
V.N.Gribov, V.M.Shekhter and K.A.Ter-Martirosyan.
Carlos Pajares received his PhD from Universidad Complutense de Madrid
in 1971. He was researcher postdoc at Orsay and Seattle and professor at
Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona. He found the Particle Physics Department
of the Universidad de Santiago de Compostela where was Rector
in the period 1984--1990. He has published many research papers on
multiparticle production, high density matter and heavy ion collisions.
Yuliy Mechislavovich Shabelski received his PhD in 1973 from
ITEP, Moscow. He first worked as a researcher and then from 1985
as a senior scientist at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute
(PNPI) of the USSR Academy of Science. He has published the book "Quark
Model and High Energy Collisions" (World Sci., 1985 and 2004) and
over 160 reseach papers on the theory and the phenomenology
of multiparticle production processes, nuclear target phenomena, heavy
quark production, heavy ion physics and some applied physics problems.