The nature of the terrestrial magnetism has been creating a problem in geophysics. This book is devoted to the elaboration of the Sutherland hypothesis of the phenomenon proposed in 1903 and almost forgotten now. He supposed the electric charge redistribution in a celestial body under the action of inhomogeneous mechanical stresses (reaction against gravity) and the magnetic field moment resulted from the axial rotation of the charged body. In this book the effect is estimated quantitatively from the quantum theory point of view among others. To describe the magnetic field, generated because of the axial rotation of electrically charged object, electrodynamics of slowly rotating observer is developed. Presented are the estimates of planetary electric and magnetic fields created due to both its internal self-gravitation and external tidal influences. The contribution of the effect into the main geomagnetic field is estimated as approximately 10%. The contribution into the magnetic moments of giant planets is larger. Also considered are other possible geophysical manifestations of the effect including specific properties of the fair weather electricity and possible earthquake forerunners.
This book could be recommended not only to Ph.D. students, university faculty members, and researchers, but also to everyone interested in the application of scientific results.
The nature of the terrestrial magnetism has been creating
a problem in geophysics. Among various explanations of the phenomenon
the most popular one is the dynamo theory: the Faraday electromagnetic
induction connected to the very special self-maintaining motions of highly
conductive material in the Earth interior is supposed to be resulted in the
geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, such motions are unavailable for in-situ
measurements, and the results of remote sensing observations not always
allow the interpretation having a single meaning either. The uncertainty
in the picture of intra-terrestrial motions impedes the specification of the
magnetic field generated due to such motions.
Other ideas have also been proposed to explain cosmic magnetism,
but usually these have been rejected without serious elaborations. This
book, the first Russian edition of which [Григорьев, Григорьева, 1995]
was published ten years ago, is devoted to the elaboration of such an
idea -- the Sutherland hypothesis proposed in 1903 and almost forgotten
now. According to Sutherland the quasi-neutrality of the material of
a self-gravitating object is broken (on the scale larger than the lattice
constant, or the Debye radius) under the action of the pressure gradient -- the reaction against gravity: light electrons are pressed out from the
central region of high pressure towards the object surface. This way the
negative electric charge abundance near the surface and positive one near
the center of the object are formed. The axial rotation of such electric
charge distribution creates the magnetic moment of rotating object.
The effect of the electric charge redistribution under the action of
the pressure inhomogeneity is estimated quantitatively from the quantum
theory point of view (among others) in this book. To describe the
magnetic field, generated due to the axial rotation of electrically charged
object, electrodynamics of slowly rotating observer is developed. It is
based on general relativity because the rotating frame of reference of
planetary observer is a non-inertial one. The contribution of the effect
into the planetary magnetic moments of the solar system is estimated. It
is responsible for approximately 10% of the total magnetic moment value
in the terrestrial case. Also, considered are other possible geophysical
manifestations of the phenomenon including effects in the fair weather
electricity and possible earthquake forerunners.