The textbook “The History of Russian Surgery: Selected Pages” corresponds to the basic educational programs of federal state educational standards of higher professional education. The purpose of the new textbook is to help students understand the special role of the history of Russian surgery and to highlight the importance of Russian scientific priorities in the development of medicine as a science. The textbook was prepared on the basis of archival materials and biographies of famous Russian scientists: “Russia’s first surgeon” N. I. Pirogov, surgeons V. A. Basov, V. F. Voino-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka), Academic B. V. Petrovsky, V. P. Demikhov, as well as an experimental surgeon and Nobel laureate I. P. Pavlov. It contains many examples of their extraordinary hard work, commitment and brilliant mastery, based on a true love of the profession. The textbook is recommended for students of higher educational institutions enrolled in the extended group of specialisations “Healthcare and Medical Science”.