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Cover Ivanov B.N. Fundamentals of Physics
Id: 180600
21.9 EUR

Fundamentals of Physics. Ed.2

URSS. 456 pp. (English). Paperback. ISBN 978-5-396-00591-4.


The book covers a wide range of topics, starting from the basic notions of particle physics and fields physics and gradually evolving to study macrophysics. Except of traditional issues the author considers subjects such as physical hydrodynamics, plasma physics, and astrophysics.

The author widely applies the role of symmetry in physical laws, which allows to establish fundamental links in nature.

The book is intended for high school students and graduates with a deep interest in physics, as well as for all those who wish to acquire a deeper knowledge of physical phenomena.



2.3. Preface 5To the Reader 7CHAPTER 1. UNITY OF NATURE 161.1. Hierarchy of Natural Objects 16Elementary Particles 16Nuclei 20Atoms and Molecules 21Macroscopic Bodies 22Planets 23Stars. Galaxies. Universe 251.2. Four Types of Fundamental Interactions 26Bound Systems of Objects. Interactions 26Gravitational Interactions 26Electromagnetic Interactions 27Strong (Nuclear) Interactions 27Weak Interactions 27Comparative Estimates for the Inten- sity of All Types of Interactions 29Fields and Matter 291.3. Space and Time 30Scales of Space and Time in Nature 30Homogeneity of Space and Time 31Free Bodies and Inertial Motion 31Inertial Reference Frames. The Relativ- ity Principle 32CHAPTER 2. MECHANICS OF A MATERIAL PARTICLE 34Coordinates, Velocity, Acceleration 34Galilean Transformations 35Absolute Nature of Dimensions and Time Intervals 36Relative Nature of Velocities and theLaw of Their Transformation 37Absolute Nature of Accelerations 37Law of Motion in Mechanics 37Motion of a Material Particle in a Gravitation- al Field 39 Momentum. Law of Momentum Conservation 42Law of Energy Conservation. Applicationsand Universal Nature of Conservation Laws 43Law of Energy Conservation 43Applications of Conservation Laws 46Universal Nature of Conservation Laws. Angular Momentum 522.7. Ultimate Velocity. Mechanics of High-Energy Particles 54Experiments on Accelerators and Ulti- mate Velocity 54Lorentz Transformations 55Relativistic Energy and Momentum 58Role of Relativistic Constant c in Phys- ics 61CHAPTER 3. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 63Electric Charge 63Method of Field Investigation 64Equation of Motion of a Charge in a Field 64Laws of Field Transformation 643.3. Laws of Electromagnetic Field 66New Objects and New Mathematics 66First Field Equation. Relation Between Electric Field and Electric Charge 67Second Field Equation. Absence of Magnetic Charges 68Third Field Equation. Relation Be¬tween Current and "Something" with a Vortex Magnetic Field 68Fourth Field Equation. Relation Be¬tween a Varying Magnetic Field anda Vortex Electric Field 71Additional Analysis of the Third Field Equation. Relation Between a Varying Electric Field and a Vortex Magnetic Field 72Maxwell's Field Equations 733.4. Constant Electric Field 74Field of a Stationary Point Charge 74Field of Charges Distributed over a Sphere, Line or Plane Surface 74Electrostatic Energy of Charges. Field Potential 77Field of a Dipole. Charge-Dipole and Dipole-Dipole Interactions 803.5. Constant Magnetic Field 82Magnetic Field of a Direct Current 82Magnetic Field of a Current Surface 82Magnetic Moment and Its Relation with Mechanical (Angular) Momentum 833.6. Motion of Charges in a Field 85Motion of a Charge in a Constant Uni- form Electric Field 85Motion of a Charge in a Constant Uni- form Magnetic Field 86Motion of a Charge in a Coulomb Field 863.7. Fields of Moving Charges. Emission 91Field of a Uniformly Moving Charge 91Emission by a Charge Moving with an Acceleration 95Emission by a Charge Moving Uniformlyin a Circle 983.8. Electromagnetic Waves 100Some Properties of Radiation Fields 100Travelling Waves 100Emission of Electromagnetic Waves by Oscillating Charges. Energy and Mo- mentum of Waves 102Free Oscillations of a Field. Standing Waves 1043.9. Propagation of Light 106Interference of Electromagnetic Waves 106Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves 107Geometrical Optics 109CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC PHYSICS AND QUANTUM MECHAN- ICS 110Planetary Model of Atom 110Experiments on Diffraction of Particles 110The Uncertainty Relation 115Probability Waves 117Complex Numbers. Eulers Formula 118Complex Probability Waves. The Superposition Principle 119Limiting Transition to Classical Me- chanics 1214.5. Electron in an Atom 123Energy and Its Quantization 123Angular Momentum and Its Quanti- zation 128Probability Amplitudes and Quan- tum Numbers 1304.6. Many-Electron Atom 132Spin of an Electron 132Systems of Identical Particles. Quan- tum Statistics 134Atomic Quantum States 1374.7. Quantization of Atomic Radiation 139Quantum Transitions. Line Spectra 139Photon. The Concept of Parity. Selec- tion Rules 140Photon-Electron Interaction. The Photoelec- tric Effect. The Gompton Effect 146Simultaneous Measurement of Quantities and the Concept of the Complete Set of Meas- urable Quantities 1504.10. Molecules 151CHAPTER 5. MACROSCOPIC BODIES AS AGGREGATESOF PARTICLES. THERMAL PHENOMENA 155The Basic Problem of Statistical Physics 155Macroscopic Quantities. Fluctuations 157Statistical Analysis of the Gas Model 159Computer Experiments 159Reversibility of Microscopic Processes in Time and Irreversibility of Macro- scopic Processes 160Entropy 161Temperature 162Equilibrium Distribution of Particles in a Body 167Thermodynamic Relations 172Ideal Gas 176Matter and Its States 176Classical and Quantum Ideal Gases 176Equation of State for an Ideal Gas 178Heat Capacity of an Ideal Gas 181Reversible Thermal Processes 1845.9. Statistics and Thermodynamics of Radiation 188 5.10. Crystals 194Crystal Lattice 194Types of Lattice Bonds 195Mechanical Properties of Crystals 196Electron Energy Spectra of Crystals 204Lattice Heat Capacity 206Electron Gas in Metals 213 5.11. Phase Transitions 218CHAPTER 6. MACROSCOPIC MOTION OF MEDIA. NON- EQUILIBRIUM PROCESSES 225Nonequilibrium States of Bodies 225Macroscopic Motion 226Equations of Hydrodynamics of an Ideal Liquid 228Matter Conservation Law in Hydrody- namics 228Equation of Motion in Hydrodynamics 2316.4. Hydrodynamic Analysis of Problems on Viscous Flow, Heat Conduction, and Diffusion 233Viscosity 233Flow of a Viscous Liquid Through a Tube 235Heat Conduction 237Heat Transfer Between Two Walls 238Diffusion. Dissolution of a Solid in a Liquid 2406.5. Kinetic Coefficients in Gases and Their Connec-tion with the Molecular Parameters 242The Concept of Mean Free Path of Molecules 243Molecular Treatment of the Diffusion Process 246Diffusion as a Random Motion of Par- ticles 248Relations Between Kinetic Coefficients 2516.6. Resistance to the Motion of Solids in a Liquid 252Similitude Method. The Reynolds Num- ber 252Drag at Low Velocities 254Drag at High (Subsonic) Velocities 2576.7. Instabilities in Hydrodynamics 259Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flows 259Boundary Layer 260Turbulent Viscosity and Thermal Diffu- sivity 262Transition from Molecular to Convective Heat Transfer. Solar Granulation 2636.8. Oscillations and Waves in a Liquid 266Various Forms of Wave Motion 266Wave Characteristics 267Linear and Nonlinear Waves 269Solitons and Other Nonlinear Effects 269Highly Perturbed Media 270Oscillations of a Charged Drop and the Fission of Heavy Nuclei 2716.9. Macroscopic Motion of Compressible Media 274Generalized Form of the Bernoulli Equa- tion 274Compressibility Criterion for a Mediumand the Velocity of Sound 275Flow in a Tube with a Varying Cross Section 276Laval Nozzle 2776.10. Shock Waves 278Propagation of Perturbations in a Com- pressible Gas Flow 278General Relations for a Shock Wave 281Shock Waves in an Ideal Gas 285The Problem on a High-Intensity Explo- sion in the Atmosphere 2896.11. Hydrodynamic Cumulative Effects 290Cumulative Jets 291Bubble Collapse in a Liquid 296Converging Spherical and Cylindrical Shock Waves 297The Role of Instabilities in Suppress- ing Cumulation 297Emergence of a Shock Wave on the Surface of a Star 298Cavitation in a Liquid 299Highly Rarefied Gases 301Macroscopic Quantum Effects in a Liquid 304Generalizations of Hydrodynamics 307CHAPTER 7. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN MEDIA.ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES 309Superconductivity 309Electrical Conductivity of Metals 310Direct Current 315Dielectric Conductance 319Electrons and Holes. Exciton States 319Semiconductors 3207.5. Electric Fields in Matter 322Field Fluctuations in a Substance 322Electrostatic Fields in Metals 324Electrostatic Fields in Insulators. Polar- ization of a Substance 3257.6. A Substance in a Magnetic Field 330Diamagnetic Effect 330Paramagnets. Orientation Magnetization 333Spontaneous Magnetization. Ferromag-netism 335Magnetic Properties of Superconductors. Quantization of Large-Scale MagneticFlux 3387.7. Alternating Currents and Electromagnetic Waves in a Medium. Optical Properties of Media 342A.C. Fields and a Substance 342Induced EMF 343A.C. Circuits. Solutions of Differential Equations 344Generation of Electromagnetic Waves 353Some Laws of Optics and the Velocity of Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in a Medium. Reflection and Refrac¬tion of Waves 355Refractive Index of Insulators. Disper¬sion and Absorption of Light 361Refractive Index of Metals. Skin Effect. Transparency of Metals to Hard Radia¬tion 364Nonlinear Optics Effects 365Lasers 369CHAPTER 8. PLASMA 373General Remarks 373Quantum Effects in Plasma. Tunneling of Nuclei Through a Potential Barrier 374Relativistic Effects in Plasma. Mass Defect in Nuclear Fusion and Energy Liberated in the Process 379Plasma Statistics. Equation of State for Plas¬ma. Thermal Radiation of Plasma 380Plasma Kinetics. Mobility of Ions and Its Relation with Diffusion. Electrical Conductivityof Plasma 384Magnetohydrodynamics and Plasma Instabili¬ties. Tokamaks 385Oscillations and Waves in Plasma. Propagationof Radio Waves in the Ionosphere 388CHAPTER 9. STELLAR AND PRESTELLAR STATES OFMATTER 392State of Matter at Ultrahigh Temperatures and Densities 392Stars as Gaseous Spheres 394Calculation of Pressure and Temperatureat the Centre of a Star 394Temperature of the Surface and the Total Emissive Power of a Star 396Energy Transfer in Stars 3969.3. Sources of Stellar Energy 397Analysis of Possible Sources of Stellar Energy 397Nuclear Reactions of the Proton-Proton Cycle 3999.4. White Dwarfs 401Possible Evolution of Stars of the Typeof the Sun 401Density and Size of White Dwarfs 401Limiting Mass of White Dwarfs 4039.5. Superdense Neutron Stars 404Size of Neutron Stars 404Rotation and Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars 405Radio Emission by Pulsars 406Internal Structure of Neutron Stars 408Gravitational Effects in the Vicinity ofa Neutron Star 4099.6. Gravitation and Relativity 411Equivalence Principle 411Geometry and Time in Noninertial Ref- erence Frames 412Einstein's Equations 4139.7. Expansion of the Universe 413Friedman's Cosmological Solutions 413Discovery of "Expansion" of the Uni- verse 415Critical Density 4169.8. Hot Universe 418Discovery of Background Thermal Ra- diation 418Charge-Asymmetric Model of Early Universe 419Change in Density and Temperature of Prestellar Matter in the Process of Cosmological Expansion 421State of Aggregation at Early Stages of Evolution of Hot Universe 4229.9. Fusion of Elements in Stars 425 Concluding Remarks 432 Appendices 433 Subject Index 447


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