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Discussion of this Paper is invited. Written communications should be addressed to the Office of the Institute, 4 Grosvenor Gardens, London S.W.I, the latest date for their receipt being Hay 18,1940.
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The Iron and Steel Institute.
THE MANUFACTURE OF PIG IRON IN AMERICA.1
By WILLIAM A. HAVEN (Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.). (Figs. 10 to 32 = Plates I. to XII.)
In this paper on the manufacture of pig iron in America, the author's specific purpose is to describe the designs, equipment and practices which characterise practically all modern American blastfurnaces, notwithstanding some great differences in the nature of the raw materials used in the principal producing districts.
The chief pig-iron-making districts are first reviewed briefly (Mexico, Nova Scotia, Southern or Alabama District, Rocky Mountain District, Eastern New York and Pennsylvania District, Mid-Western District), and then data on the iron ores of the Lake ■ Superior District are presented (chemical qualities, iron content, beneficiation, reducibility, physical characteristics, output). Next, a description of the transportation of Lake ores (distances and charges, storage facilities, Lake carriers) is followed by an account of Appalachian coking coals and coke (river transportation, transport costs, mining methods, quality of coal, coke-ovens and the_blast-furnace plant, coke quality). Attention is then directed to blastfurnace plant and equipment, and detailed consideration is given to raw-material unloading facilities, raw-materials storage, stock-house bins, bottom and top charging equipment, the stack, the cooling, the lining and dimensions of blast-furnaces, casting facilities, metal and slag handling, power plants and blowers, hot-blast stoves, gas-cleaning equipment, and sintering and sintering plant. Finally there is a short section on blast-furnace practice in America.
Numerous illustrations and Tables of data are included.
Some of the statistics and data presented in this paper were prepared especially for the benefit of the Members of the Iron and Steel Institute who were to have visited America for the first time in the fall of 1938. Other information that is believed to be of interest to blast-furnace operators generally has now been added. A specific purpose of the author has been to describe the designs, equipment and practices which characterise practically all modern American furnaces, notwithstanding some great differences in the nature of the raw materials that are used in the principal producing districts. These districts, with one exception, are located along an imaginary line which extends from Monterey, Mexico, to Sydney, Nova Scotia, a distance of about 2700 miles.
An aerial photograph of Gary Works, which includes the world's largest pig-iron-producing plant, with twelve modern blast-furnaces,
1 Received September 5, 103Ü.