Preprinted not published, for the meeting of the Fnaineers, Pittsburgh, Pa., Xorember lön, 193i. This
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, fmsourgn, ra., u.^-wi ±his paper is the literary pro/ierty of
the Institute and is not to be reprinted in whole or abstract until after the meeting and then only with permission and with due credit. Written discussion is invited and rimv be sent to the Executive Secretary, Frederic J. Leiiaistre, SOS Belle rue Court Building Philadelphia-mtL; before December 15, 19!!,
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SULFUR (CEMENTS By WERNER W. DUECKER * *^
Sulfur as such cnvin various combinations, particularly as sulfirf^gj^ cements, has been used as a sealing compound or bonding agent for many years. Although such cements have been known for a long time,, the technical literature 1'25'28 reveals but little information regarding their physical characteristics and utility. In the present paper these data will be presented ; and, in addition, there will be given a description of a comprehensive research that had for its aim tbe development of a new type of sulfur cements, evolved primarily for the purpose of satisfying a wide range of industrial requirements.
At first, because of its inertness, ease of application, and strengths sulfur was probably used per se, particularly as a bonding material. It was employed to set iron hand rails in stone. Holley 15 notes an instance in which a generator engine at a mine had become loose in its base. It was impossible to shut down the works and make extensive repairs. So the engine was jacked up, the foundation cleaned with air, a shallow trench dug in the concrete engine bed, and the trena%-s filled with molten sulfur. When the sulfur had cooled, the engine was started and, with such anchorage, operated satisfactorily for more than three years. At present acid-pickling tanks, constructed entirely , of sulfur, are giving excellent service. v
Although sulfur can be used as such, its strength as a bonding agent can be increased by the admixture of coal,2 sand,-'4 pumice.8 and other materials.111417';!1 Peculiar characteristics can be impa-'-d to it by the addition of bitumens,4'7'8'9'16'29-33 metallic sulfides,20--2'27'30 and fibrous materials.21'32 In some instances iron filings 3,13 am' ammonium chloride 5 have been added to sulfur, particularly for use in ic. ;ng iron pipes. These latter cements owe their strength not only
o the action of the sulfur itself but also to the formation of iron •
ulfidc in situ.
\ nile certain of these products had been known for years, it was . nt until the work of Bacon and Davis 1 was reported that attention * Senior Fellow, Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, Pittsburgh, Pa.