Will our Universe expand forever, or there is a Big Crunch coming up? How can the rate of the Universe expansion be measured in a laboratory? How does the boundary of space look?
How can Mach's principle be verified experimentally? How many stars are needed in order for the law of inertia to hold?
What is a source of the uncertainty in the micro world? How does an indivisible electron contrive to pass through two holes at the same time?
What mechanism underlies the gravitational interaction? Why is space-time curved near a large mass? What happens to an atom in a gravitational field? And, finally, where all these black holes go?
If you want to know answers to these questions, this book is for you!
In this book, the uncertainty and gravitation are considered as two aspects of the same phenomenon. The mechanism of the gravitational attraction is explained visually. A physical sense of the curved space-time is revealed on a simple example of an atom in a gravitational field. An explanation of the most bizarre quantum paradoxes as, for instance, the corpuscle-wave dualism and non-locality is proposed. A description of the experiment on measurement of the rate of the Universe expansion is presented.
To understand better the subject of this book look through the
following three interesting and unsolved problems of fundamental
It is known that there exist two kinds of motion: relative motion
and absolute motion. Newton was the first who paid his attention to
this fact. Straight-line motion is relative and rotational is absolute. We
can say nothing about a value of a travel velocity (for example,
a value of travel velocity of the Earth) if we do not point to another
body, relative to which we can describe the motion. However, we will
always calculate an angular velocity (for example, the angular velocity
of the Earth). It is possible because of centrifugal force acting in
a rotating body. This force deforms the body. Knowing a value of
a centrifugal force or deformation, which is the result of action of this
force, we can calculate a value of a rotational velocity of the body.
In this connection the following question arises: what is an
object, relative to which a body can rotate?
At the end of the nineteenth century the Austrian physicist Ernst
Mach had put forward an interesting hypothesis (which was called
later the Mach principle): a body rotates relative to the fixed stars.
A centrifugal force is the result of a vague connection between the huge
mass of all the stars and the rotating body.
How can we verify this assumption?
Famous American physicist Richard Feynman wrote about this:
"we have no way, at the present time, of telling whether there would
have been centrifugal force if there were no stars and nebulae around.
We have not been able to do the experiment of removing all nebulae
and then measuring our rotation, so we simply do not
know" [13, ch.l6.1].
In the year 1979 an International scientific conference dedicated
to centenary of Albert Einstein had taken place in Berlin. The most
fundamental problems of modern physics were discussed at that
conference. Scientists also discussed the Mach principle and the
general theory of relativity. Here are some phrases from the summary
on this subject: "It is known that Einstein not only took this
unorthodox principle and admired it, but also hoped to introduce the
system of Mach's ideas in his theory. Therefore he modified the first
classical formulation of the general theory of relativity. Even now
there are performed attempts -- tirelessly, sometimes with
discouraging results, often by help of witty manipulations -- to attain
the object, for which Einstein strove" .
Nevertheless, a problem connected with the Mach principle
may be solved! To do this, the following steps are necessary:
First, reveal a physical sense of the Mach principle, which is not
Second, create a new physical theory that would include the
Mach principle and also well-known physical laws.
Third, calculate, i.e. predict, fundamentally new consequences which follow from the new theory and which may be verified in
terrestrial conditions (without taking away the fixed stars). As a result
we will determine whether the Mach principle is correct or not.
In physics there exist such concepts as a particle and wave.
These concepts are antagonists. Properties of a particle and properties
of a wave are mutually exclusive each other. However, quantum
objects behave sometimes as waves, sometimes as particles. For
example, an electron, in certain experimental conditions, is a particle.
Moreover, it is an indivisible particle. Nobody observes half of an
electron or other amount of its part. However, in other experimental
conditions, the electron can simply pass through two and more holes
at the same time!
If you do not know this phenomenon you will probably find it
hard to believe. It is not surprising! Formerly such a remarkable
physicist as Albert Einstein (who did very much for creating quantum
mechanics, by the way) did not accept quantum mechanics. He held
that a physical theory should not contradict common sense so much.
At present, the wave nature of an electron is an established
experimental fact. You can read about this in Feynman lectures on
physics, v.l, ch.37: "Quantum behavior" .
It should be noted that quantum mechanics describes "strange"
behavior of quantum objects perfectly. However, to describe is not to
explain. It is not clear yet where in the micro-world the uncertainty
comes from and how an indivisible electron contrives to pass through
two holes at the same time. Here is what Richard Feynman wrote
about "strange" behavior of quantum objects: "I think I can safely say
that nobody understands quantum mechanics" [15, p.129].
All in the world attract each other. On the other hand, all in the
world obey the laws of quantum mechanics, the base of which is the
uncertainty principle. Thanks to this principle, any particle possesses
the wave properties. However, the modern theory of gravitation -- Einstein
's theory of gravitation (also as the Newtonian theory of
gravitation) -- does not take into account this fundamental principle,
i.e. does not take into account that particles possess the wave
properties. So the following question arises naturally. Is it possible to
unify the theory of gravitation and quantum mechanics so that in
description of gravitational interaction the wave properties of particles
would be taken into account?
It will be clear later that all these three problems are connected
with each other. We will understand the physical sense of the Mach
principle. From that, we will understand the origin of the uncertainty
in the micro-world. Understanding, in turn, the source of the
uncertainty in the micro-world, we will understand why bodies attract
each other. This book presents a solution to these problems.
Running ahead, we may say that uncertainty principle underlies
gravitational interaction. That is, gravitation is a pure quantum effect!
I express my gratitude to Andrei Sherstyuk for the great work
on correction of the English text.
In section 2.6, the first new equation (New Law) is introduced,
which defines the foundation of the further construction of the new
theory. In chapter 3, the main principles of the new theory are
discussed in details. In sections 4.7--4.10, we derive the equation of
propagation of light in a gravitational field on the base of those
principles. In these sections, we also determine the deflection angle
and a value of the gravitational shift of spectral lines.
In chapter 7, we formulate the quantum theory of gravitation,
building upon the new theory. We reveal the meaning of the notion of
"curved space-time": in a gravitational field, the uncertainty in motion
of particles decreases, in consequence of which atomic sizes change
(radii of electrons' shells decrease). That, in turn, causes changes in
the energy of transition of electrons from one level to another. As the
result, the radiation frequencies and wavelengths of spectral lines
Precisely all that is the reason that in a gravitational field, the
scale of time and the scale of length change, which creates the
curvature of space-time near a large mass.
In section 7.5, we derive the equation of motion of a particle in
a gravitational field, proceeding from the fact that the particle
possesses wave properties. In section 7.8, we show the fundamental
difference between the quantum theory of gravitation and the general
theory of relativity. In section 8.3, we propose a simple experiment,
the result of which will help us choose either the quantum theory of
gravitation or the general theory of relativity. In section 8.7, we show
the fundamental contradiction between the general theory of relativity
and quantum mechanics.
Chapter 1 is introductory. In chapter 5, we discuss the
paradoxes of quantum mechanics. In chapter 6, we give the visual
explanation of these paradoxes from the new point of view. In
chapter 9, we discuss some problems of modern cosmology and in
chapter 10 we propose their solutions from the standpoint of the
quantum theory of gravitation.