Everything discussed in this book must have already been discussed by someone at one time, in one context or another. We just do not yet know who it was discussed by and when.
The principles (postulates) of energy theory state the following.
The Universe, in all of its parts ranging from the minimal to the maximal is constantly pulsating, compressing energy in some parts and accordingly rarefying it in others.
The Universe is to be considered in terms of three independent constituents (general coordinates): Energy, Space, and Time. The essence (main feature) of the Universe is the motion of Energy and Energy fields in Space--Time, nonexistent separately from each other. In the absence of motion, no fields exist; in the absence of fields, no motion is present. Only energy fields exist--potential, kinetic, electric, magnetic, gravitational, and all other fields. Only energy interaction exists--gravitational, electromagnetic, nuclear, or any other. There exist no absolute motion and hence no absolute fields, but only relative motion and relative fields.
Energy is to be divided into Material and Spiritual energies. Relative motion of bunches of material energy is accessible to the human sensory system (possibly enhanced by special-purpose instruments), but relative motion of bunches of spiritual energy is inaccessible to the human senses.
The concept of a physical process viewed as a process in general is absolute. In human mind, a physical process determines (implies) relative motion of energy in space and time, and therefore is always unidirectional. This property of physical processes is mentally associated by Humankind with the concept of Time--a one-dimensional unidirectional coordinate accounting for the course of physical processes in the Universe. A physical process is always occurring, and therefore relative motion is either present or not.
The dimensionality of Space is determined solely by the requirements of prognostic calculations of the relative motion of energy bunches or of their energy interaction in a chosen mathematical model. In everyday life in terrestrial conditions, three one-dimensional bidirectional coordinates have been sufficient for Humankind to coordinate its consciousness in three-dimensional space.
The concept of Energy has been adopted by Humankind as bidirectional coordinatization of the course of physical processes.
Mass is not a measure of inertia or of gravity but a reduced (conventional) measure of energy contained in the part of space--time occupied by material bodies. Mass is a measure of the relative potential or kinetic energy in the absence or presence of relative motion of material bodies (bunches of energy), a measure reduced to terrestrial conditions. Mass is independent of relative parameters of motion (relative velocities or the frequency of relative interaction) of material bodies viewed as bunches of energy.
The World surrounding us is reflected in the Consciousness of Humankind as a certain Knowledge of this World, as an understanding of the laws governing its existence, which are passed on from generation to generation in the form of information accumulated on material media and with the help of information perceptible by the senses (speech, music, painting, writing, and so on). The consciousness of Humankind overall, as well as the consciousness of an individual, is also an information medium, but it has essential differences from material media because (besides the relation to the World provided by the senses) it is endowed with a capacity for analysis, generalization, and, most importantly, affection and empathy, i.e., is also a medium carrying spiritual information.
Humankind has always sufficed with the Knowledge that it has acquired to any given moment of its existence, but this Knowledge is constantly being advanced (developed, updated, and enriched), which constitutes one of the most important needs of the human race.
Today, from the heights of the 21st century, we realize that time has come for a refined and updated reviewal of some principal foundations of the physical science that were accepted more than four hundred years ago in the 17th century and survived till the early 21st century as applied physical theories.
The purpose of this book is to develop and update a small part of this Knowledge in the form of principles (postulates), and in some cases as hypotheses open to discussion. In no way do we disregard the part of Knowledge currently accumulated in the form of physical theories and confirmed by human practice; this knowledge can only be somewhat refined and clarified in what follows in the framework of the postulates formulated below.
To represent the surrounding World in Consciousness and to communicate in any of the existing languages, Humankind uses the so-called concepts (comprehension of the World), which have their own names (identifiers) in each language. Part of the concepts that are only used in habitual communication, or parts of the underlying concepts, always differ from one another by their qualitative or quantitative properties and features. A special group among all concepts is comprised by scientific concepts of physics, some of which can be quantified, i.e., have a dimension and hence proper measurement units.
All concepts used by Humankind, and the physical concepts in particular, are absolute.
For individual human beings, their own existence in the surrounding World is absolute. Collectively with this World, man mentally constructs his own Universe as an absolute notion, and then extends this absolutism, most often subconsciously, to everything around him. Man feels his relativeness only in interaction with fellow human beings, with the ambient World, with Nature.
All in the World surrounding us -- all that was, all that is, and all that will be -- is definite and specific, being the results of physical processes, accomplished facts. But the progress toward these results is relative, it depends on a large number of conditions (both initial and those relevant in the process), and hence the resulting values, allowing comparison in terms of quantity and quality, are also relative.
Everything occurring in the World, in Nature, and in Life is relative.
Precisely this is the "relativity theory," already known to and felt by "ancient" philosophers as a mundane "relativity principle" stating that "everything depends on which side you look at it from." Scientific (physical) versions of this principle include the Galilei relativity principle, special and general relativity theories, and, possibly, some other versions that have not yet been given a name in science.
If any characteristic, any quantitative and qualitative feature of the results of physical processes is conventional and relative, then the general physical laws, formulated by Humankind (by Science) and called "fundamental," expressed mathematically in the form of equations and quantitatively determining the results of physical processes, also are relative, conventional, i.e., are valid under certain conditions and assumptions. The physical science will sooner or later have to comply with this.
Nature does have absolute laws, and it proves this by its very existence! But there are no absolute laws of Nature written in the language of Humankind (in the language of mathematics in particular) and embracing all the variety of physical processes occurring in Nature! All of these laws relative! One such law is the Energy Conservation Law or, more precisely, the Law of Energy conservation in Space and Time, and yet more precisely, the Law of conservation of a part of Energy in a part of Space and in a part of Time.
As a universal principle for all physical process, the relativity principle was first formulated by H.Poincar\'e. As regards A.Einstein (with all respect to this outstanding scientist), his mathematical exercises in physics are related to this "ancient" principle rather vaguely. His mathematical exercises in his works on electrodynamics of moving bodies could be called a "relativity theory" only by someone with a very keen sense of humor. Representatives of modern physical schools never allow the "validity" of Einstein's theory to be discussed in scientific world, similarly to those religious and scientific authorities who in the lifetime of Copernicus and Galilei were unwilling to accept scientific views of the surrounding World discordant with the theories of the great ancient scientists Aristotle and Ptolemy that were dominant at the time.
The author certainly realizes that all said in this book about the essence of the relevant problems is not the absolute truth, not the ultimate truth. Everything to be said below is also relative, i.e., conventional, and is determined by the general framework of contemporary Knowledge.
No ageless truths exist! But all theories must live their life to the end, until Humankind accumulates new Knowledge obtained from experience and from the practice of its existence, which can then allow modifying these theories or refuting them altogether.
This book might not aspire to being a substantive scientific treatise as this is understood by part of the modern scientific community, because of the tendency of the author to mainly use qualitative ideas and estimates for explaining the essence of the problems.
Therefore, in this book ("treatise," to use the word preferred by the "ancients"),
According to E.Fermi, one of the greatest physicists of the 20thnbsp;century, " physical essence of a problem that is genuinely understood can be explained without complicated formulas." The ability to explain the crux of a problem in simple, elementary terms determines the true understanding of physical laws.
Overall, this book is devoted not only to problems of physics-based understanding of the surrounding World but also to philosophical comprehension of this World, i.e., to philosophy of natural sciences at the level of the contemporary scientific Knowledge.
Any pieces of knowledge about the material World in general and the processes occurring in it constitute the information passed by Humankind from generation to generation, together with the belief in the truth of this information. Most of these elements of knowledge are verified by experience of the human existence, although any given individual is incapable of embracing, let alone verifying, their validity. Therefore, the faith in the truth of knowledge (which is relative!) is somewhat akin to religion. This faith is nourished mostly by education, but also by indoctrination, via the so-called "mass media," in both genuine knowledge, i.e., experimentally verified results and facts, and false knowledge, i.e., untested (or deliberately corrupted) results and facts (misinformation). Information itself is passed on from one subject to another (or from one community to another) since "ancient times," with the help of sound for words, and light and color for images (graphs, letter, painting).
Our use of standard scientific terms and concepts that have long been in use and which therefore require no explanation or deciphering may produce the illusion of a long acquaintance with many of the proposals formulated here, which are apparently self-evident. The more so because many physicists have analyzed the proposed principles (postulates) one way or another, and may have come close to a similar understanding.
In the late 19th century, Poincare, who was a great mathematician rather than a physicists, was the first to declare the existence of what was then termed the "crisis" of classical physics. There can in principle be no crises in the human understanding of laws governing the existence of the Universe, however. There may only be insufficiency in the Knowledge and the impossibility of the explanation of emerging experimental data based on the existing physical theories. We can only speak of a gradual approximation to the understanding of the laws governing the Universe, with the aim of a more precise prediction of physical processes and phenomena occurring in the World surrounding us.
That was a crisis of the "absoluteness" of the laws of Nature formulated mathematically under certain conditions and assumptions, a crisis of extending the validity of these mathematical constructions to the assessment of physical phenomena and processes occurring in all of the unmeasurable (in Space and Time) Universe, a crisis of the understanding of the "absoluteness" of Space and Time prevailing in the late 19th--early 20th century.
Many of Poincare's ideas have not been realized in physical theories such as, in particular, the special and general relativity theories and quantum mechanics, to the elaboration of which he had come quite close, but then stopped for some obscure reasons. He may have had his own good reasons for that.
To go ahead is the job of scientists of the 21st century after they refine several established and popularly accepted physical theories that have already become "obvious," as well as after they renounce several delusions regarding the infinitude of the energy that the human race will be able to utilize for its purposes in the future.
1. Mass is not a measure of inertia or a measure of gravity. Mass is the measure of relative energy contained in an isolated energy system, a measure reduced to terrestrial conditions. Mass is a reduced measure of relative potential energy in the absence of relative motion and a reduced measure of relative kinetic energy in the presence of relative motion of energy bunches in the system.
2. The Universe is Energy, Space, and Time--the independent coordinates in the Universe, none of which can exist alone. Parts of Energy, Space, and Time cannot be physically equal to zero.
3. Motion and Fields are a characteristic of the Universe, a characteristic of Energy--Space--Time. The existence of Motion implies Fields, and vice versa, the existence of Fields implies Motion.
4. The Universe, in any of its parts ranging from minimal to maximal, is constantly pulsating, leading to energy contraction in some parts and, accordingly, energy rarefaction in some others.
5. The Motion (existence) of Energy in the Universe occurs in an Energy field, subdivided into a potential field (the field of energy contraction) and a kinetic field (the field of energy expansion). Relative motion of energy bunches in space--time occurs under the action of the mutual relative (potential--kinetic, electromagnetic, gravitational--antigravitational) energy field.
6. The motion of energy from one part of space--time to another part filled with energy is accompanied by resistance in the form of mutually balanced real forces. A force is the measure of resistance to the compression or expansion of energy in space--time in the course of motion in the existing energy fields. The real force interaction occurs after energy redistribution at the "boundary" of energetic media.
7. Nothing definite can be stated about the motion of an energy system that is not energetically interacting with other systems. No absolute (nonrelative) motion exists.
8. The dimension of Space--Time is relative (conventional). Space--Time is multi-dimensional and can be represented by any value of its dimension corresponding to a prognostic solution of a practical problem.
9. The energy of an isolated system of interacting energy objects (systems) is the sum of their proper (potential and kinetic) energies and the mutual relative (potential and kinetic) energies.
10. In a prognostic calculation of the relative motion of energy bunches, their relative rotation must be taken into account as the existence of mutual kinetic fields and a manifestation of real interaction forces.