Вниманию читателей предлагается хрестоматия на английском языке, в которую включены отрывки из произведений английской литературы XIX в., представляющих различные жанры и иллюстрирующих основные историко-литературные направления. Аппарат книги состоит из вступительной статьи, биографических справок и историко-литературного комментария.
Книга предназначена для студентов педагогических вузов, обучающихся английскому языку, а также для широкого круга читателей, желающих улучшить знание языка и интересующихся английской литературой.
Diakonova Nina Yakovlevna, Amelina Tatiana Anatolevna
An Anthology of English Literature of the 19th Century. Second Edition
We present to the reader’s attention an English language anthology containing fragments of different works of the 19th century English literature. These passages represent different genres and illustrate the main currents in history and literature. The book structure consists of an introductory article, biographical notes and historical and literary comments.
This book is recommended to students of institutes studying English language and also to readers wishing to improve their language knowledge and interested in English literature.
Nineteenth century English literature is remarkable both for high artistic
achievement and for variety. The greatest literary movement of its earlier period
was that of romanticism. It was born in the atmosphere of the violent economic
and political turmoil that marked the last decades of the 18th and the first decades
of the 19th century. The outburst of political activity brought on by the Great
trench Revolution of 1789, the bitter wars with Napoleon's France that ravaged
Europe for almost 25 years were the dominant political forces at work. The hardships
of the industrial and agrarian revolution whose joint effect was a gradual change Of
all aspects of social life in England made the situation rife with class hatred.
Great distress was caused by large landowners enclosing millions of acres of
land for their own purposes and thus dispossessing labourers who were reduced
either to slaving on the fields of their masters or to migrating in search of the means
to support themselves by working 12--14 hours a day for wages notoriously below
subsistence level. The labouring poor, in town and country alike, suffered the utmost
misery from underpayment and overwork and from crowding in hugely overpopulated
Misery resulted in blind outbreaks against machinery, which, the workers believed,
did their work leaving themselves to unemployment and their families to slow
starvation. Meanwhile "the rights of labour were not yet recognised, there were no
trade unions... the majority of country-people could not read or write; the good old
discipline of Father Stick and his children Cat-O'-Nine-Tails, Rope's End, Strap,
Birch, Ferule, and Cane was wholesomely maintained; landlords, manufacturers
and employers of all kinds did what they pleased with their own,.. Elections were
carried by open bribery... the Church was intolerant, the Universities narrow and
The situation was not any better when the long wished for peace was at last
ushered in by the victory over Napoleon's army at Waterloo (1815). Unemployment
became worse than ever after soldiers came home only to find that "the labouring
people were almost all become paupers." This was the way trie situation was summed
up by William Cobbett, a democratic writer and publisher renowned for his support
of people's rights. After a journey across England he wrote with the simple eloquence
so characteristic of him: "Here are all the means of national power and of individual
plenty and happiness... every object seemed to pronounce an eulogium on the
industry, skill and perseverance of, the people. And why then were those people in
a state of such misery and degradation?"
Meanwhile the wealthy ruling classes were frightened by what they called the
excesses of the French Revolution and by the growing spirit of discontent at home.
They were ever ready to see rebellion in any attempt of the workers to better their
lot. They invariably voted for a conservative government at home and supported
all its blundering attempts to suppress revolt: "The leaders of reaction reigned supreme... filled with dread of the revolution they seemed to think that the only function
of government was the maintenance of order and the suppression of rebellion."
This, briefly, was the background of the English romantic movement. Its
principal stimuli were on the one hand profound dissatisfaction with the atmosphere
of reaction that seemed to have set in for good after the hope and fervour of the
French Revolution was quenched in the blood of wars and numerous uprisings.
The state of things in Europe seemed to mock the theories of the great men of the
Enlightenment who had expected to see a world transformed by reason and common
sense. Thence the romantic distrust of reason, rationalism, emphasis on emotion,
intuition, the instinctive wisdom of the heart, on nature as opposed to civilisation.
On the other hand, romantic writers were violently stirred by the suffering of
which they were the daily unwilling witnesses. They were anxious to find a way
of redressing the cruel social wrongs and hoped to do so by their writings, by word
or deed. A feature that all romantics had in common was a belief in literature being
a sort of mission to be carried out in the teeth of all difficulties, with the view of
bringing aid or, presumably, salvation to mankind.
In using the term "romantic" no effort is made here to treat all the romantics
of England as belonging to the same literary school. Romanticism is here regarded
as a very complex and certainly far from unified endeavour to give a new answer to
the problems of revolution and reaction, of past history and present-day politics,
of the materialistic philosophy dominant in the age of Enlightenment and the idealistic
trends in early nineteenth century European thought. It is in the nature of
the answer given to all these urgent questions that the romantics differ from each
other. And it is precisely that difference, no less than the points of likeness between
them, that should be given serious consideration.
As distinct from the romantic writers of Germany or of France, their English
contemporaries did not call themselves romanticists, and some of them were at pains
to disprove public opinion calling them so. Nevertheless they all made part of
a movement eloquent of the spirit of the age, with its ingrained sense of incessant
historical change, of the interdependence of man and the Universe, of the world as
ruled by semi-intelligible powers surpassing individual will.
The first English poet to be fully aware of the dilemmas of the age of great
bourgeois revolutions was William Blake. His poetry has been discussed in the first
volume of the present series (An Anthology of English Literature, XVIII) where he
chronologically belongs, but as a forerunner of romanticism in the 19th century
he must also, be mentioned here. Blake's violent revulsion from rationalism, his
repeatedly proclaimed belief in intuition and inspiration as the only paths to true
wisdom, his idealistic and mystic conceptions of humanity and its mysterious ways
were then quite original. Similar ideas were later taken up by many poets who did
not know of his work, as in his own life-time he published but one of his books of
poetry. The rest of his numerous lyrics and epics never reached the public of his
days. In his portrayal of a gigantic world in the Prophetic Lays Blake precedes the
Byron of Cain and Heaven and Earth, the Shelley of Prometheus Unbound.
Though bitterly disappointed in the downfall of the French Revolution, for
reasons that were personal as well as public, Blake never wavered in his devotion
to the cause of freedom, in his hatred of oppression and inequality. In this he differed
from his younger contemporaries William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor
Coleridge. Both began as warm admirers of the Revolution, so much so that Wordsworth
even travelled to France to witness the great liberation of mankind. But after
their hopes were baffled when a rapacious bourgeois clique came to power in 1794,
when the French republic started aggressive wars against its neighbours, both poets
arrived at the conclusion that they had been unwise in expecting any good to come
of political change, in placing too much trust in the capacity of reason to create
a self-sufficient and well-regulated society of equals.
Both poets resolved to withdraw from the evils of big industrial cities and to
devote themselves to seeking truth and beauty in the quiet of country-life, in the
grandeur and purity of nature, among unsophisticated and uncorrupted countryfolk.
They dreamed of creating art that would be true to the best that is in man
and help to bring it out by sheer force of poetry. Living in the Lake country
of Northern England they were known as the Lakists.
Together they composed and published a small volume of poems entitled Lyrical
Ballads to which Coleridge contributed the gruesome tale of the Ancient Mariner
and four more lyrics. The bulk of the volume was supplied by Wordsworth. He
called his ballads lyrical, because their interest did not lie in subject-matter and plot
but in mood and treatment, in making one feeling modify and transform all other
feelings and all the persons and events described. That treatment was what Wordsworth
and Coleridge termed imaginative. By imagination they meant the most
essential faculty of a poet, the one that enables him to modify all images, to give
unity to variety and see all things in one. "This power... reveals itself in the balance
or reconcilement of opposite or discordant qualities; of sameness with difference;
of the general with the concrete; the idea with the image; the individual with the
representative; the sense of novelty and freshness with old and familiar objects;
a more than usual state of emotion with more than usual order..."
Thus the poetic imagination is a power of paramount importance to the creative
artist. It is this power that helps Wordsworth to find beauty and significance in
the simplest things pertaining to nature -- in the song of the cuckoo, in the unadorned
beauty of an early spring afternoon. In his assertion of man versus society,
of religion versus rationalism, of heart versus intellect, of nature versus civilisation
Wordsworth was a romantic -- no less so than Coleridge with his passionate interest
in mystical experience and the supernatural. T[ie latter is, for Coleridge, a symbol
of the complexity of human life, its painful contradictions, its dark and unfathomable
aspects. Thus, the tragic Odyssey of the Ancient Mariner, his fantastic adventures
in the seas of everlasting ice and eternal tropics, his encounter with the spectreship
and miraculous salvation are all symbols of states of mind, of crime, punishment
and expiation through repentance, prayer and love.
In their later years, after the bulk of their work was done, both poets became
increasingly conservative in their religious and political views and more rigid in
their moral attitudes. The political evolution of the two poets was closely paralleled
by a mutual friend of theirs, Robert Southey. His talent, at its best in simple ballads,
was decidedly inferior to both Wordsworth's and Coleridge's. If he is at all
remembered now it is chiefly for his lifelong intimacy with them. As time went on
Southey came to voice the official opinion of the Tory government.
The greatest romantic poet of the elder generation was Walter Scott. Though
personally friendly to the Lakists, he never quite shared their literary tastes and
affinities. The author of a number of stylised imitations of old English and Scottish
ballads and original epic poems dealing with the feudal past of his native Scotland,
it is as a novelist and discoverer of a new province of writing that Walter Scott
won his world renown. His claim to a high rank among the romantics mainly depends
on, his profound sense of history. He was one of the first to realise the dialectical
nature of the relationship between individual and public life, of the interdependence
of great historical characters and popular movements and interests; with unerring
acumen did he trace individual and social psychology, no less than the influence
of social facts and circumstances upon the actions of the rulers and the ruled. His
novels struck the reader (and still do so) with their epic quality, with his analysis
of "the forces that go to make a situation and lead individuals to act as they do."
"Scott's romanticism," Kettle proceeds to say, "lies in his rejection of the 18th century
polite tradition and his attempt to write of and for far broader sections of the
people." His art was steeped in folklore, in ancient balladry, in the robust realism
of Fielding and Smollett, in the grandeur of Shakespeare's historical chronicles.
While drawing largely on a vast store of book-learning and previous literary experience
he inaugurated a new era in the history of the English novel.
Among,the romantic poets of the younger generation Scott preferred Byron.
They were drawn together by mutual admiration, personal and artistic alike, by
their concept of literature as having a straight message to give humanity, and teach
it a moral and political lesson. Like Scott, Byron had a distinct feeling of the movement
of History, of unceasing development, of huge forces shaping human lives.
Unlike Scott, however, who shared the Lake poets' distrust of political reorganisation
of society and their disapproval of revolutionary methods, Byron, though
sometimes sceptical about the results of a future revolution, entertained no doubt
whatever both about the inevitability of revolution and the moral and political
necessity for any man to fight for it to the best of his abilities. He too was disappointed
in the social aftermath of 1789 but he always realised its liberating effect and
its role in the future of mankind.
Byron's romanticism was coloured by grief at sight of the corrupting and
debasing influence of reaction and absolute power -- and hopes of future regeneration;
by adherence to the ideals of the great men of the age of Reason -- and a sense
that their theories were too single-minded, too facile to cope with the tragic conflicts
of his own time. Yet never did Byron go so far as the elder poets in his negation
of the theories of the Enlightenment, and only questioned the possibility of putting
them soon into practice. Neither did he agree with the senior romantics' disparagement
of classicism, one of the leading literary styles of the Age of Enlightenment.
He broke most of its rules, but to the last he proclaimed it as the only path to truth,
virtue and poetical excellence. Classicism was to Byron, along with the. ethical
and political concepts of the Enlightenment, an ideal that he vainly endeavoured to
live up to himself and induce others to follow...
Родилась в 1915 году. Доктор филологических наук, профессор Педагогического
университета им. А.И.Герцена. Начала преподавать в 1934 году, опубликовала
11 книг и около 300 статей. Наряду с монографиями о Байроне среди важнейших
ее книг следует назвать: "Лондонские романтики и проблемы английского
романтизма" (Л., 1970), "Китс и его современники" (М., 1973), "Английский
романтизм: проблемы эстетики" (М., 1978), "Три века английской поэзии" (Л.,
1967, на английском языке), "Из истории английской литературы" (Л., 1983).
Книга "Байрон в годы изгнания", впервые изданная в 1974 году, рассказывает о
зрелом творчестве Байрона во время его пребывания в Швейцарии, Италии,
Греции. Каждая из этих стран оставила глубокий след в его поэмах, лирике,
драматургии и прозе, вдохновляла его стремлению служить освобождению
человечества. В первой главе книги дан краткий обзор раннего творчества
Татьяна Анатольевна АМЕЛИНА
Кандидат филологических наук. Жила и работала в Риге на кафедре английского
языка в политехническом университете. Занималась англо-американской
литературой XIX-XX вв. Опубликовала работы, посвященные языку и стилю
Джейн Остин, Марии Эджуорт, Генри Джеймса и Эдит Уортон. В соавторстве с
Инной Стам перевела пьесы Сомерсета Моэма, Сола Левита, Гарольда Пинтера, а
также рассказы П. Г. Вудхауза и Роальда Даля. В 1992 г. эмигрировала в США,
где одиннадцать лет преподавала русский язык и русскую культуру в Бостоне и в
Монтерее, Калифорния. В Америке опубликовала ряд переводов на английский
язык, в том числе несколько стихотворений из сборника Иосифа Бродского "Новые
стансы к Августе" в журнале "The Formalist, a Journal of Metric Poetry"
(1999, 2000, 2001). Чтобы ознакомить американских студентов с лучшими
образцами русского языка, занималась адаптацией произведений русских авторов.
В 2002 г. в Бостоне вышла адаптация Т. А. Амелиной повести Пушкина
"Капитанская дочка". Выйдя на пенсию, Татьяна Анатольевна не прекратила
работать. Она занялась совсем новым делом -- медицинскими переводами в
онкологическом центре Бостона, помогая эмигрантам из бывшего Советского Союза
справляться с тяжелыми медицинскими ситуациями в новой стране.