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Обложка Дьяконова Н.Я., Амелина Т.А. // Diakonova N.Ya., Amelina T.A. Хрестоматия по английской литературе XIX века // An Anthology of English Literature of the 19-th Century (in English)
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Хрестоматия по английской литературе XIX века // An Anthology of English Literature of the 19-th Century (in English). Изд.2

URSS. 2010. 288 с. Мягкая обложка. ISBN 978-5-396-00113-8.

 Аннотация

Вниманию читателей предлагается хрестоматия на английском языке, в которую включены отрывки из произведений английской литературы XIX в., представляющих различные жанры и иллюстрирующих основные историко-литературные направления. Аппарат книги состоит из вступительной статьи, биографических справок и историко-литературного комментария.

Книга предназначена для студентов педагогических вузов, обучающихся английскому языку, а также для широкого круга читателей, желающих улучшить знание языка и интересующихся английской литературой.

Diakonova Nina Yakovlevna, Amelina Tatiana Anatolevna

An Anthology of English Literature of the 19th Century. Second Edition

We present to the reader’s attention an English language anthology containing fragments of different works of the 19th century English literature. These passages represent different genres and illustrate the main currents in history and literature. The book structure consists of an introductory article, biographical notes and historical and literary comments.

This book is recommended to students of institutes studying English language and also to readers wishing to improve their language knowledge and interested in English literature.


 Contents

English Literature in the Nineteenth Century
 A Brief Outline
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
 Love
 The Ballad of the Dark Ladie
 Kubla Khan
 Christabel
William Wordsworth
 Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey
 Lines Written in Early Spring
 Lucy Gray or, Solitude
 I Travelled Among Unknown Men
 She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways
 A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal
 She Was a Phantom of Delight
 London, 1802
 Upon the Sight of a Beautiful Picture
Robert Southey
 The Battle of Blenheim
 God's Judgement on a Wicked Bishop
Walter Scott
 The Heart of Midlothian
 Maisie
 Lochinvar
Thomas Moore
 The Minstrel-Boy
 Oh! Blame Not the Bard
 Oh! Breathe Not His Name
 As a Beam O'er the Face of the Waters May Glow
 Those Evening Bells
Thomas De Quincey
 On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth
Charles Lamb
 Dream Children; A Reverie
William Hazlitt
 On the Love of Life
George Gordon Byron
 Lines to a Lady Weeping
 Song for the Luddites
 When We Two Parted
 Sonnet on Chillon
 So, We'll Go No More A-Roving
 Stanzas
 Parisina
 The Vision of Judgment
 Love and Death
Percy Bysshe Shelley
 England in 1819
 Song to the Men of England
 Ode to the West Wind
 Mutability
 A Dirge
 Lines
 Lines Written in the Bay of Lerici
 Choric Songs from Hellas
 Liberty
 Good-Night
 To --
 To Jane
John Keats
 On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
 On the Grasshopper and Cricket
 When I Have Fears
 Where Be You Going, You Devon Maid?
 Meg Merrilies
 Ode to a Nightingale
 On a Grecian Urn
 To Autumn
 Bright Star! Would I Were Steadfast as Thou Art
 This Living Hand, Now Warm and Capable
Jane Austen
 Emma
Thomas Babington Macaulay
 The History of England
Thomas Carlyle
 On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History
 Past and Present
Ernest Charles Jones
 A Song for the People
 The Song of the Low
Charles Dickens
 Oliver Twist
 David Copperfield
William Makepeace Thackeray
 Vanity Fair
Elizabeth Gaskell
 Cranford
Charlotte Bronte
 Jane Eyre
Emily Bronte
 Wuthering Heights
 High Waving Heather
 Remembrance
Alfred Tennyson
 Ulysses
 Godiva
 A Farewell
 Vivien
 Maud
 In Memoriam A. H. H
Robert Browning
 My Last Duchess
 Porphyria's Lover
 The Lost Mistress
 Love Among the Ruins
John Ruskin
 From Sesame and Lilies
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
 A Little While
 Lost Days
 Lovesight
 Sister Helen
William Morris
 A King's Lesson
 The Voice of Toil
Anthony Trollope
 Barchester Towers
George Eliot
 The Mill on the Floss
George Meredith
 The Egoist
 Modern Love
Lewis Carroll
 Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Robert Louis Stevenson
 Kidnapped
 A Good Play
 Where Go the Boats?
 Travel
 The Vagabond (To an air of Schubert)
Algernon Charles Swinburne
 Chorus from Atalanta in Calydon
 A Leave-Taking
 A Ballad of Burdens
 William Shakespeare
 Cor Cordium
Oscar Wilde
 Lord Arthur Savile's Crime
 Impressions (Le Silhouettes)
 The Ballad of Reading Gaol
Thomas Hardy
 The Return of the Native
 A Few Crusted Characters
 Andrey Satchel and Parson and Clerk
 The Darkling Thrush
 Two Lips
 A Cry from the Green-Grained Sticks of the Fire
George Gissing
 The House of Cobwebs
Samuel Butler
 The Way of All Flesh
Rudyard Kipling
 The Story of Muhammad Din
 The Ballad of East and West
 The Vampire
 When Earth's Last Picture Is Painted
Commentary

 ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY


A Brief Outline

Nineteenth century English literature is remarkable both for high artistic achievement and for variety. The greatest literary movement of its earlier period was that of romanticism. It was born in the atmosphere of the violent economic and political turmoil that marked the last decades of the 18th and the first decades of the 19th century. The outburst of political activity brought on by the Great trench Revolution of 1789, the bitter wars with Napoleon's France that ravaged Europe for almost 25 years were the dominant political forces at work. The hardships of the industrial and agrarian revolution whose joint effect was a gradual change Of all aspects of social life in England made the situation rife with class hatred.

Great distress was caused by large landowners enclosing millions of acres of land for their own purposes and thus dispossessing labourers who were reduced either to slaving on the fields of their masters or to migrating in search of the means to support themselves by working 12--14 hours a day for wages notoriously below subsistence level. The labouring poor, in town and country alike, suffered the utmost misery from underpayment and overwork and from crowding in hugely overpopulated industrial areas.

Misery resulted in blind outbreaks against machinery, which, the workers believed, did their work leaving themselves to unemployment and their families to slow starvation. Meanwhile "the rights of labour were not yet recognised, there were no trade unions... the majority of country-people could not read or write; the good old discipline of Father Stick and his children Cat-O'-Nine-Tails, Rope's End, Strap, Birch, Ferule, and Cane was wholesomely maintained; landlords, manufacturers and employers of all kinds did what they pleased with their own,.. Elections were carried by open bribery... the Church was intolerant, the Universities narrow and prejudiced."

The situation was not any better when the long wished for peace was at last ushered in by the victory over Napoleon's army at Waterloo (1815). Unemployment became worse than ever after soldiers came home only to find that "the labouring people were almost all become paupers." This was the way trie situation was summed up by William Cobbett, a democratic writer and publisher renowned for his support of people's rights. After a journey across England he wrote with the simple eloquence so characteristic of him: "Here are all the means of national power and of individual plenty and happiness... every object seemed to pronounce an eulogium on the industry, skill and perseverance of, the people. And why then were those people in a state of such misery and degradation?"

Meanwhile the wealthy ruling classes were frightened by what they called the excesses of the French Revolution and by the growing spirit of discontent at home. They were ever ready to see rebellion in any attempt of the workers to better their lot. They invariably voted for a conservative government at home and supported all its blundering attempts to suppress revolt: "The leaders of reaction reigned supreme... filled with dread of the revolution they seemed to think that the only function of government was the maintenance of order and the suppression of rebellion."

This, briefly, was the background of the English romantic movement. Its principal stimuli were on the one hand profound dissatisfaction with the atmosphere of reaction that seemed to have set in for good after the hope and fervour of the French Revolution was quenched in the blood of wars and numerous uprisings. The state of things in Europe seemed to mock the theories of the great men of the Enlightenment who had expected to see a world transformed by reason and common sense. Thence the romantic distrust of reason, rationalism, emphasis on emotion, intuition, the instinctive wisdom of the heart, on nature as opposed to civilisation.

On the other hand, romantic writers were violently stirred by the suffering of which they were the daily unwilling witnesses. They were anxious to find a way of redressing the cruel social wrongs and hoped to do so by their writings, by word or deed. A feature that all romantics had in common was a belief in literature being a sort of mission to be carried out in the teeth of all difficulties, with the view of bringing aid or, presumably, salvation to mankind.

In using the term "romantic" no effort is made here to treat all the romantics of England as belonging to the same literary school. Romanticism is here regarded as a very complex and certainly far from unified endeavour to give a new answer to the problems of revolution and reaction, of past history and present-day politics, of the materialistic philosophy dominant in the age of Enlightenment and the idealistic trends in early nineteenth century European thought. It is in the nature of the answer given to all these urgent questions that the romantics differ from each other. And it is precisely that difference, no less than the points of likeness between them, that should be given serious consideration.

As distinct from the romantic writers of Germany or of France, their English contemporaries did not call themselves romanticists, and some of them were at pains to disprove public opinion calling them so. Nevertheless they all made part of a movement eloquent of the spirit of the age, with its ingrained sense of incessant historical change, of the interdependence of man and the Universe, of the world as ruled by semi-intelligible powers surpassing individual will.

The first English poet to be fully aware of the dilemmas of the age of great bourgeois revolutions was William Blake. His poetry has been discussed in the first volume of the present series (An Anthology of English Literature, XVIII) where he chronologically belongs, but as a forerunner of romanticism in the 19th century he must also, be mentioned here. Blake's violent revulsion from rationalism, his repeatedly proclaimed belief in intuition and inspiration as the only paths to true wisdom, his idealistic and mystic conceptions of humanity and its mysterious ways were then quite original. Similar ideas were later taken up by many poets who did not know of his work, as in his own life-time he published but one of his books of poetry. The rest of his numerous lyrics and epics never reached the public of his days. In his portrayal of a gigantic world in the Prophetic Lays Blake precedes the Byron of Cain and Heaven and Earth, the Shelley of Prometheus Unbound.

Though bitterly disappointed in the downfall of the French Revolution, for reasons that were personal as well as public, Blake never wavered in his devotion to the cause of freedom, in his hatred of oppression and inequality. In this he differed from his younger contemporaries William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Both began as warm admirers of the Revolution, so much so that Wordsworth even travelled to France to witness the great liberation of mankind. But after their hopes were baffled when a rapacious bourgeois clique came to power in 1794, when the French republic started aggressive wars against its neighbours, both poets arrived at the conclusion that they had been unwise in expecting any good to come of political change, in placing too much trust in the capacity of reason to create a self-sufficient and well-regulated society of equals.

Both poets resolved to withdraw from the evils of big industrial cities and to devote themselves to seeking truth and beauty in the quiet of country-life, in the grandeur and purity of nature, among unsophisticated and uncorrupted countryfolk. They dreamed of creating art that would be true to the best that is in man and help to bring it out by sheer force of poetry. Living in the Lake country of Northern England they were known as the Lakists.

Together they composed and published a small volume of poems entitled Lyrical Ballads to which Coleridge contributed the gruesome tale of the Ancient Mariner and four more lyrics. The bulk of the volume was supplied by Wordsworth. He called his ballads lyrical, because their interest did not lie in subject-matter and plot but in mood and treatment, in making one feeling modify and transform all other feelings and all the persons and events described. That treatment was what Wordsworth and Coleridge termed imaginative. By imagination they meant the most essential faculty of a poet, the one that enables him to modify all images, to give unity to variety and see all things in one. "This power... reveals itself in the balance or reconcilement of opposite or discordant qualities; of sameness with difference; of the general with the concrete; the idea with the image; the individual with the representative; the sense of novelty and freshness with old and familiar objects; a more than usual state of emotion with more than usual order..."

Thus the poetic imagination is a power of paramount importance to the creative artist. It is this power that helps Wordsworth to find beauty and significance in the simplest things pertaining to nature -- in the song of the cuckoo, in the unadorned beauty of an early spring afternoon. In his assertion of man versus society, of religion versus rationalism, of heart versus intellect, of nature versus civilisation Wordsworth was a romantic -- no less so than Coleridge with his passionate interest in mystical experience and the supernatural. T[ie latter is, for Coleridge, a symbol of the complexity of human life, its painful contradictions, its dark and unfathomable aspects. Thus, the tragic Odyssey of the Ancient Mariner, his fantastic adventures in the seas of everlasting ice and eternal tropics, his encounter with the spectreship and miraculous salvation are all symbols of states of mind, of crime, punishment and expiation through repentance, prayer and love.

In their later years, after the bulk of their work was done, both poets became increasingly conservative in their religious and political views and more rigid in their moral attitudes. The political evolution of the two poets was closely paralleled by a mutual friend of theirs, Robert Southey. His talent, at its best in simple ballads, was decidedly inferior to both Wordsworth's and Coleridge's. If he is at all remembered now it is chiefly for his lifelong intimacy with them. As time went on Southey came to voice the official opinion of the Tory government.

The greatest romantic poet of the elder generation was Walter Scott. Though personally friendly to the Lakists, he never quite shared their literary tastes and affinities. The author of a number of stylised imitations of old English and Scottish ballads and original epic poems dealing with the feudal past of his native Scotland, it is as a novelist and discoverer of a new province of writing that Walter Scott won his world renown. His claim to a high rank among the romantics mainly depends on, his profound sense of history. He was one of the first to realise the dialectical nature of the relationship between individual and public life, of the interdependence of great historical characters and popular movements and interests; with unerring acumen did he trace individual and social psychology, no less than the influence of social facts and circumstances upon the actions of the rulers and the ruled. His novels struck the reader (and still do so) with their epic quality, with his analysis of "the forces that go to make a situation and lead individuals to act as they do." "Scott's romanticism," Kettle proceeds to say, "lies in his rejection of the 18th century polite tradition and his attempt to write of and for far broader sections of the people." His art was steeped in folklore, in ancient balladry, in the robust realism of Fielding and Smollett, in the grandeur of Shakespeare's historical chronicles. While drawing largely on a vast store of book-learning and previous literary experience he inaugurated a new era in the history of the English novel.

Among,the romantic poets of the younger generation Scott preferred Byron. They were drawn together by mutual admiration, personal and artistic alike, by their concept of literature as having a straight message to give humanity, and teach it a moral and political lesson. Like Scott, Byron had a distinct feeling of the movement of History, of unceasing development, of huge forces shaping human lives.

Unlike Scott, however, who shared the Lake poets' distrust of political reorganisation of society and their disapproval of revolutionary methods, Byron, though sometimes sceptical about the results of a future revolution, entertained no doubt whatever both about the inevitability of revolution and the moral and political necessity for any man to fight for it to the best of his abilities. He too was disappointed in the social aftermath of 1789 but he always realised its liberating effect and its role in the future of mankind.

Byron's romanticism was coloured by grief at sight of the corrupting and debasing influence of reaction and absolute power -- and hopes of future regeneration; by adherence to the ideals of the great men of the age of Reason -- and a sense that their theories were too single-minded, too facile to cope with the tragic conflicts of his own time. Yet never did Byron go so far as the elder poets in his negation of the theories of the Enlightenment, and only questioned the possibility of putting them soon into practice. Neither did he agree with the senior romantics' disparagement of classicism, one of the leading literary styles of the Age of Enlightenment. He broke most of its rules, but to the last he proclaimed it as the only path to truth, virtue and poetical excellence. Classicism was to Byron, along with the. ethical and political concepts of the Enlightenment, an ideal that he vainly endeavoured to live up to himself and induce others to follow...


 Об авторах

Нина Яковлевна ДЬЯКОНОВА

Родилась в 1915 году. Доктор филологических наук, профессор Педагогического университета им. А.И.Герцена. Начала преподавать в 1934 году, опубликовала 11 книг и около 300 статей. Наряду с монографиями о Байроне среди важнейших ее книг следует назвать: "Лондонские романтики и проблемы английского романтизма" (Л., 1970), "Китс и его современники" (М., 1973), "Английский романтизм: проблемы эстетики" (М., 1978), "Три века английской поэзии" (Л., 1967, на английском языке), "Из истории английской литературы" (Л., 1983).

Книга "Байрон в годы изгнания", впервые изданная в 1974 году, рассказывает о зрелом творчестве Байрона во время его пребывания в Швейцарии, Италии, Греции. Каждая из этих стран оставила глубокий след в его поэмах, лирике, драматургии и прозе, вдохновляла его стремлению служить освобождению человечества. В первой главе книги дан краткий обзор раннего творчества поэта.

Татьяна Анатольевна АМЕЛИНА

Кандидат филологических наук. Жила и работала в Риге на кафедре английского языка в политехническом университете. Занималась англо-американской литературой XIX-XX вв. Опубликовала работы, посвященные языку и стилю Джейн Остин, Марии Эджуорт, Генри Джеймса и Эдит Уортон. В соавторстве с Инной Стам перевела пьесы Сомерсета Моэма, Сола Левита, Гарольда Пинтера, а также рассказы П. Г. Вудхауза и Роальда Даля. В 1992 г. эмигрировала в США, где одиннадцать лет преподавала русский язык и русскую культуру в Бостоне и в Монтерее, Калифорния. В Америке опубликовала ряд переводов на английский язык, в том числе несколько стихотворений из сборника Иосифа Бродского "Новые стансы к Августе" в журнале "The Formalist, a Journal of Metric Poetry" (1999, 2000, 2001). Чтобы ознакомить американских студентов с лучшими образцами русского языка, занималась адаптацией произведений русских авторов. В 2002 г. в Бостоне вышла адаптация Т. А. Амелиной повести Пушкина "Капитанская дочка". Выйдя на пенсию, Татьяна Анатольевна не прекратила работать. Она занялась совсем новым делом -- медицинскими переводами в онкологическом центре Бостона, помогая эмигрантам из бывшего Советского Союза справляться с тяжелыми медицинскими ситуациями в новой стране.

 
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